Toxicity of Santa Barbara, California, USA seep oil to starfish (Patiria miniata) embryos. 2. The growth bioassay
The asteroid Patiria miniata was used to develop a static bioassay for various crude oil water-soluble fractions (WSF). The criterion used is the size of 48-h exposed embryos. The reasons for choosing this species and the growth criterion are discussed. Experiments show that the body length of 48-h exposed embryos is inversely proportional to hydrocarbon concentration of the WSF and the time of exposure. It is also shown that the toxicity of the WSF decreases with the age of the preparation and that the first 12 h following fertilisation are most sensitive to the effects of WSF.
P.H. Davis, Terry W. Schultz, and R.B. Spies. "Toxicity of Santa Barbara, California, USA seep oil to starfish (Patiria miniata) embryos. 2. The growth bioassay" Marine Environmental Research 5.4 (1981): 287-294.
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