Pathophysiology of Clinical Disorders of Urine Concentration and Dilution
Neil A. Kurtzman and Manuel Martinez-Maldonado. Courtesy of Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd., Springfield, Illinois. http://www.ccthomas.com/
NOTE: At the time of publication, the author Susan C. Opava-Stitzer was affiliated with the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine - San Juan, Puerto Rico. Currently, April 2008, she is Dean of Research and Graduate Programs at California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo.
A defect in the ability to concentrate or dilute the urine can be easily recognized by the maximum or minimum urine concentration the patient is able to achieve. Maximum concentrating ability (Umax) is determined by the urine osmolality reached after a fixed period of dehydration and maximal diluting ability (Umin) by the minimum osmolality of the urine after the oral ingestion of a fixed water-load. These indices, however, do not allow an understanding of the pathophysiological alterations leading to the presence of the defect.
Manuel Martinez-Maldonaldo and Susan C. Opava-Stitzer. "Pathophysiology of Clinical Disorders of Urine Concentration and Dilution" Pathophysiology of the Kidney. , 1977. 992-1028.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/sopava/4