Evaluation of Oral Itraconazole Administration in Captive Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus humboldti)
Aspergillus spp. fungal infections are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in captive penguins. Itraconazole has been the drug of choice for both therapeutic and prophylactic treatment; however, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters can be highly variable in different species, and it has not been evaluated in penguins. In this study, four preliminary steady-state trials were performed to compare two oral formulations of itraconazole (commercial capsules compared with generic bulk compounded powder) at two different dosages (6 or 12 mg/kg once a day) administered in fish to small groups of captive Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti). Building on this data, a final steady-state trial was performed with the use of a 7 mg/kg oral dosage twice a day of commercial capsules given in fish to a group of 15 penguins. With sparse sampling, blood was drawn for testing from small subsets of each treatment group at 4–7 time points in the 24-hr period after the final dose of itraconazole on day 14. Steady-state plasma concentrations of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole, the major metabolite, were determined by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Treatment with the generic bulk compounded product resulted in plasma levels of itraconazole that were undetectable for 26 out of 30 blood samples, compared with seven out of 20 blood samples for the commercial product at the same dosage. On the basis of study results, an estimated oral dosage of either 8.5 mg/kg twice a day or 20 mg/kg once a day of the commercial itraconazole capsules given in fish would produce adequate steady-state therapeutic blood levels in Humboldt penguins.
Elizabeth M. Bunting, Noha Abou Madi, Sherry Cox, Tomas Martin-Jimenez, Henry Fox, and George V. Kollias. "Evaluation of Oral Itraconazole Administration in Captive Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus humboldti)" Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 40.3 (2009): 508-518.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/sherry_cox/15