Termination risk and managerial risk taking
We test the hypothesis that managers who face a high termination risk make less risky investments than the managers who face a low termination risk. A 10% increase in our measure of termination risk is associated with a 5%–23% decline in stock returns volatility for the median firm in our sample. We also find that for CEOs who are more likely to be fired in the event of investment failure, the inhibiting effect of termination risk appears to offset the positive effect of convexity of managerial compensation on managerial risk taking. These results are robust to alternative definitions of forced turnover and various measures of firm performances.
Atreya Chakraborty, Shahbaz A. Sheikh, and Narayanana Subramanian. "Termination risk and managerial risk taking" Journal of Corporate Finance 13 (2007): 170-188.