Professor Legge is a biological anthropologist with research interests in human and
non-human primate skeletal biology as well as areas of growth and development in both
skeletal and living populations. Specifically, he has conducted research into vertebral
pathologies in skeletal collections of native Alaskans and pathological conditions of the
skeleton in great apes and Old World monkeys. Additionally, his research into the
developmental processes of skeletal maturation in subadults resulted in a method for the
estimation of the age of puberty in skeletal populations based on epiphyseal fusion of
those bones known to fuse at or near the time of puberty. 

Professor Legge’s background and training are in all four fields of anthropology, with a
specialization in biological anthropology. He has academic and research experience in
human variation, human population biology, bioarchaeology, and skeletal biology, as well
as extensive experience in historic and prehistoric archaeology. Prior to coming to
Macalester he taught at the University of Kent, Canterbury, UK. 

Professor Legge’s Ph.D. research included the examination of vertebral pathologies in
skeletal collections from Golovin Bay and Nunivak Island, Alaska. He examined the
patterns of the pathological conditions and analyzed them with regard to traditional
subsistence resource strategies for two different geographic regions within Alaska. He
also compared the patterns observed with published data from other geographic regions,
both within and outside of the Arctic. 

His teaching interests include: Human Biology and Adaptation, Osteology, Paleopathology,
Growth and Development, Bioarchaeology, Primates, Nutrition and Disease. 

EDUCATION: BA Purdue University; MA Southern Illinois University; PhD University of

Legge has been teaching at Macalester since 2008. 

Journal Articles


Cranial trauma and interpersonal violence in Alaskan Natives, Journal of Paleopathology (2015)

Cranial trauma is investigated in a skeletal collection from Nunivak Island, Alaska. Trauma was observed...



Evaluation of the utility of deciduous molar morphological variation in great ape phylogenetic analysis (with Anna M. Hardin), Dental Anthropology (2013)

Non-metric dental traits are well- established tools for anthropologists investigating population affiliation and movement in...



Dental Morphology and the Phylogenetic “Place” of Australopithecus sediba (with Joel D. Irish, Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg, Darryl J. de Ruiter, and Lee R. Berger), Science (2013)

To characterize further the Australopithecus sediba hypodigm, we describe 22 dental traits in specimens MH1...



Geographic Variation in Nonmetric Dental Traits of the Deciduous Molars of Pan and Gorilla (with Anna M. Hardin), International Journal of Primatology (2013)

Physical anthropologists often use nonmetric dental traits to trace the movement of human populations, but...


Contributions to Books and Encyclopedias


Nutrition and food, Encyclopedia of the Arctic (2004)


Physical anthropology of the Arctic, Encyclopedia of the Arctic (2004)

Physical Anthropology of the Arctic (with G Richard Scott, Robert W. Lane, Susan Steen, and Steven R. Street), The Arctic: Environment, People, Policy (2000)

Presentations and Published Abstracts

Taurodontism in Review: Methods of determination and anthropological utility. (with Anna M. Hardin), Eighty-fourth Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (2015)

Taurodontism, the expansion of the pulp chamber of a tooth, has been a well-known feature...


Is this yaws? Possible treponemal induced cranial vault lesions in a young chimpanzee (with Claire A. Kirchhoff), Eighty-second Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (2013)

A considerable amount of research in both living and past human populations has been conducted...


Sex-related patterns of dentoalveolar abscesses in the genus Pan., Eighty-first Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (2012)

Dental abscesses may be used as an indicator of dental health in non-human primates. These...


A Bronze Age woman in an Anglo-Saxon village (with Louise C. D. Schoss), Seventy-seventh Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (2008)

During the excavation of a late Anglo-Saxon settlement at Bishopstone, Sussex, UK, a crouched burial...