Macroscopic anatomy of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida) lower respiratory system.
This investigation serves to document the normal anatomical features of the lower respiratory tract of the ringed seal [ Pusa ( phoca) hispida]. Evaluation of embalmed specimens and tracheobronchial casts showed that the right lung of this seal consists of four lobes while the left has only three lobes. The ventral margins of the lungs do not reach the sternum causing them to form the boundary of the broad recessus costomediastinalis. Lung lobation corresponds with bronchial tree division. Pulmonary venous drainage includes right and left common veins draining ipsilateral cranial and middle lung lobes, and one common caudal vein draining both caudal lobes and the accessory lobe. The right and left pulmonary arteries divide into cranial and caudal branches at the level of the principal bronchus. The ringed seal has three tracheobronchial lymph nodes. The trachea has an average of 87 cartilages that exhibit a pattern of random anastomoses between adjacent rings. The trachea exhibits to a small degree the dorsoventrally flattened pattern that is described in other pinnipeds. The tracheal diameter is smaller than that of the canine.
H Smodlaka, Robert W. Henry, and Robert B. Reed. "Macroscopic anatomy of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida) lower respiratory system." Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C 38.3 (2009): 177-183.
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