A comparison between intravenous and intraosseous induction of anesthesia by diazepam, acepromazine and ketamine in dogs
The applicability of the intraosseous administration of anaesthesia in dogs was studied, and compared with the intravenous route. Also, the effectiveness if intraosseous fluid therapy was evaluated. Sixteen mixed-breed dogs were divided into two groups: intravenous and intraosseous groups. Diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) was administered in each of the animals as a premedicant. After 10 min, a mixture of acepromazine (0.2 mg/kg) and ketamine (2 mg/kg) was administered through the cephalic vein to induce anaesthesia (intravenous group). In the intraosseous group, the mixture was administered into the bone marrow; this was done after surgical disinfection, local anaesthesia and a stab skin incision on the medial flat surface of the left tibial bone. Fluid therapy was achieved by infusion of Ringer's solution through the same route in the anaesthesia induction. Heart rate increased after the induction of anaesthesia in both groups. Respiratory rate was also decreased in both groups after the injection of anaesthetics. However, there was no significant difference for these factors between the 2 groups. The depth of anaesthetic reflex depression and onset of action of the anaesthetics were similar in both groups. The number of neutrophils increased at the 3rd day of the experiment in the intraosseous group; there were no signs of inflammation or infection at the site of injection. Radiography showed mild sclerosis at the injection site, in 3 cases (37.5%), which is a response to the administered drugs, especially ketamine. The average rate of intraosseous fluid administration was 5 ml/min. It was concluded that the induction of a short-lasting anaesthesia and fluid therapy, through the intraosseous route, can be a safe and reliable technique, and can be used in urgent conditions.
Mohammad R. Sedighi and et al.. "A comparison between intravenous and intraosseous induction of anesthesia by diazepam, acepromazine and ketamine in dogs" Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran 56.3 (2001): 97-102.
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