Environmentally Friendly Organic Synthesis Using Bismuth Compounds. Bismuth Trifluoromethanesulfonate-Catalyzed Allylation of Dioxolanes
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A bismuth trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate)-catalyzed (2.0 mol-%) multicomponent reaction involving the allylation of dioxolanes followed by in situ derivatization with anhydrides to generate highly functionalized esters has been developed under solvent-free conditions. Most reagents used to date for allylation of dioxolanes are highly corrosive and are often required in stoichiometric amounts. In contrast, the use of a relatively non-toxic and non-corrosive bismuth(iii)-based catalyst makes this methodology especially attractive for scale-up.
Ram S. Mohan, Matthew J. Spaffpord, James E. Christensen, Matthew G. Huddle, and Joshua R. Lacey. "Environmentally Friendly Organic Synthesis Using Bismuth Compounds. Bismuth Trifluoromethanesulfonate-Catalyzed Allylation of Dioxolanes" Australian Journal of Chemistry 61.6 (2008): 419-421.