Social influences on smoking in middle-aged and older women
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of 2 types of social influence-general social support and living with a smoker-on smoking behavior among middle-aged and older women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants were postmenopausal women who reported smoking at some time in their lives (N = 37,027), who were an average age of 63.3 years at baseline. Analyses used multiple logistic regression and controlled for age, educational level, and ethnicity. In cross-sectional analyses, social support was associated with a lower likelihood and living with a smoker was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current smoker and, among smokers, of being a heavier smoker. Moreover, in prospective analyses among baseline smokers, social support predicted a higher likelihood and living with a smoker predicted a lower likelihood of smoking cessation 1-year later. Further, in prospective analyses among former smokers who were not smoking at baseline, social support predicted a lower likelihood and living with a smoker predicted a higher likelihood of smoking relapse 1-year later. Overall, the present results indicate that social influences are important correlates of smoking status, smoking level, smoking cessation, and smoking relapse among middle-aged and older women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Charles J. Holahan, Rebecca J. North, Carole K. Holahan, Rashelle B. Hayes, Daniel A. Powers, and Judith K. Ockene. "Social influences on smoking in middle-aged and older women" Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors (2011).
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/ockenej/200