Family Leaves, The FMLA, and Gender Neutrality: The Intersection of Race and Gender
Using nationally representative data on the employed, we assess the effects of gender as well as the intersection of race and gender on family leave taking post-FMLA. We find that White men are significantly less likely to take family leaves than White women and men and women of color. Although men across race are less likely to take leaves for newborns, they are almost as likely as women to take leaves for seriously ill children and parents and as likely to take leaves for spouses. Men, regardless of race, tend to take shorter leaves than women. Our results have important implications for the design of leave policy: the broadening of family leaves beyond parental leaves reduces inequality in likelihood of leave; the introduction of leaves for routine family demands probably does little to reduce gender inequality; unpaid leaves mandated by the FMLA may sustain inequality.
Amy Armenia and Naomi R. Gerstel. "Family Leaves, The FMLA, and Gender Neutrality: The Intersection of Race and Gender" Social Science Research 35.4 (2006): 871-891.