Understanding the principles that govern life under extreme conditions will greatly
enhance our ability to preserve clinical important cellular materials and help us to
better understand and treat diseases that involve mitochondrial dysfunctions. Student
training forms the core of my research program. Undergraduate and graduate student who
would like to work in my laboratory should share my fascination with 'life at the
limits' and 'lessons from nature' and are welcome to contact me about
current research opportunities. For a more detailed description of current research
projects please visit my laboratory homepage. 

Anhydrobiosis (Life without Water)


Molecular approaches for improving desiccation tolerance: insights from the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana (with Steven C. Hand), Planta (2015)

Main conclusion We have evaluated the endogenous expression and molecular properties of selected Group 3...



Group 3 Late Embryogenesis Abundant Proteins from Embryos of Artemia franciscana: Structural Properties and Protective Abilities during Desiccation (with Leaf C. Boswell and Steven C. Hand), Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, in press. (2014)

Group 3 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are highly

hydrophilic, and their expression is associated...



Diapause and Anhydrobiosis in Embryos of Artemia franciscana: Metabolic Depression, LEA Proteins and Water Stress (with Steven C. Handel, Yuvraj Patil, Shumin Li, Nilay Charkraborty, Arpurva Borcar, Leaf C. Boswell, Daniel Moore, and Mehmet Toner), Cryobiology and Cryotechnology (2013)

Metabolic depression is typically correlated with extended survival of environmental challenge and energy-limitation in early...



Late embryogenesis abundant proteins protect human hepatoma cells during acute desiccation (with Shumin Li, Nilay Chakraborty, Apurva Borcar, Mehmet Toner, and Steven C. Hand), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2012)

Expression of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins is highly correlated with desiccation tolerance in anhydrobiotic...



LEA Proteins during Water Stress: Not Just for Plants Anymore (with Steven C. Hand, Mehmet Toner, Leaf Boswell, and Daniel Moore), Annual Reviews of Physiology (2011)

Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are extremely hydrophilic proteins that were first identified in land...


Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death)


Long-Term Survival of Anoxia Despite Rapid ATP Decline in Embryos of the Annual Killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus (with Jason E. Podrabsky and Steven C. Hand), Journal of Experimental Zoology: Part A (2012)

Embryos of the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus can survive for months in the complete absence...



Mechanisms of Apoptosis in Crustacea: What Conditions Induce Versus Suppress Cell Death? (with Grady Fortner, Suman Nag, and Steven C. Hand), Apoptosis (2010)

Arthropoda is the largest of all animal phyla and includes about 90% of extant species....



Mitochondria in energy-limited states: mechanisms that blunt the signaling of cell death (with Steven C. Hand), Journal of Experimental Biology (2008)

Cellular conditions experienced during energy-limited states – elevated calcium, shifts in cellular adenylate status, compromised...



Caspase activity during cell stasis: avoidance of apoptosis in an invertebrate extremophile, Artemia franciscana (with Steven C. Hand), American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology (2007)

Evaluation of apoptotic processes downstream of the mitochondrion reveals caspase-9- and low levels of caspase-3-like...



Mitochondrial permeability transition in the crustacean Artemia franciscana: absence of a calcium-regulated pore in the face of profound calcium storage (with Kirk Hutchinson, Susan Laborde, and Steven C. Hand), American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology (2005)

When mammalian mitochondria are exposed to high calcium and phosphate, a massive swelling, uncoupling of...


Allosteric Regulation (Respiratory Pigments)


Thermodynamics of effector binding to hemocyanin: influence of temperature (with Ariane Pott and Manfred K. Grieshaber), Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics (2009)

Hemocyanins are allosterically regulated oxygen carriers freely dissolved in the blood of many crustaceans. The...



Allosteric Models for Multimeric Proteins: Oxygen-Linked Effector Binding in Hemocyanin (with Nadja Hellman, Heinz Decker, and Manfred K. Grieshaber), Biochemistry (2005)

In many crustaceans, changing concentrations of several low molecular weight compounds modulates hemocyanin oxygen binding,...



Binding of Urate and Caffeine to Hemocyanin Analyzed by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (with Nadja Hellmann, Heinz Decker, and Manfred K. Grieshaber), Journal of Experimental Biology (2001)

Haemocyanin serves as an oxygen carrier in the haemolymph of decapod crustaceans. The oxygen-binding behaviour...



Binding of Urate and Caffeine to Hemocyanin of the Lobster Homarus Vulgaris (E.) As Studied by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry † (with Nadja Hellmann, Heinz Decker, and Manfred K. Grieshaber), Biochemistry (2000)

Hemocyanin serves as an oxygen carrier in the hemolymph of the European lobster Homarus Vulgaris....


Cell Stabilization (Preconditioning)


Cryopreservation of hepatocyte (HepG2) cell monolayers: Impact of trehalose (with Blake Stokich, Quinn Osgood, David Grimm, Shhyam Moorthy, and Nilay Chakraborty), Cryobiology (2014)

A simple method to cryogenically preserve hepatocyte monolayers is currently not available but such a...



Metabolic Preconditioning of Mammalian Cells: Mimetic Agents for Hypoxia Lack Fidelity in Promoting Phosphorylation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (with Apurva Borcar, Mehmet Toner, and Steven C. Hand), Cell and Tissue Research (2012)

Induction of HIF-1α by oxygen limitation promotes increased phosphorylation and catalytic depression of mitochondrial pyruvate...



Metabolic Preconditioning of Cells with AICAR-Riboside: Improved Cryopreservation and Cell-Type Specific Impacts on Energetics and Proliferation (with Nilay Chakraborty, Matthew Clavenna, Mitali Banerjee, Xiang-Hong Liu, Mehmet Toner, and Steven C. Hand), Cryobiology (2011)

In species whose evolutionary history has provided natural tolerance to dehydration and freezing, metabolic depression...



Metabolic Restructuring during Energy-Limited States: Insights from Artemia franciscana Embryos and Other Animals (with Steven C. Hand, Apu Borcar, Yuvraj Patil, Joseph A. Covi, Julie A. Reynolds, and Mehmet Toner), Journal of Insect Physiology (2011)

Many life history stages of animals that experience environmental insults enter developmental arrested states that...



Trehalose Uptake through P2X7 Purinergic Channels Provides Dehydration Protection (with Gloria D. Elliott, Jennifer L. Cusick, Xiang-Hong Liu, Trudy Witt, Steven C. Hand, and Mehmet Toner), Cryobiology (2006)

The tetra-anionic form of ATP (ATP4-) is known to induce monovalent and divalent ion fluxes...


Cell Stabilization (Lyopreservation)


Trehalose Transporter from African Chironomid Larvae Improves Desiccation Tolerance of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (with Nilay Chakraborty, Heidi Elmoazzen, Halong Vu, Martin Yarmush, Steven C. Hand, and Mehmet Toner), Cryobiology (2012)

Dry preservation has been explored as an energy-efficient alternative to cryopreservation, but the high sensitivity...



Cryopreservation of Spin-Dried Mammalian Cells (with Nilay Chakraborty, Jason Malsam, Alptekin Aksan, Steven C. Hand, and Mehmet Toner), PLoS One (2011)

This study reports an alternative approach to achieve vitrification where cells are pre-desiccated prior to...



Spin-Drying Technique for Lyopreservation of Mammalian Cells (with Nilay Chakraborty, Anthony Chang, Heidi Elmoazzen, Steven C. Hand, and Mehmet Toner), Annals of Biomedical Engineering (2011)

Stabilization of cellular material in the presence of glass-forming sugars at ambient temperatures is a...



Desiccation Kinetics and Biothermodynamics of Glass Forming Trehalose Solutions in Thin Films (with Xiaoming He, Alex Fowler, Steven C. Hand, and Mehmet Toner), Annals of Biomedical Engineering (2008)

In this study, the desiccation kinetics of aqueous trehalose solutions were investigated numerically by solving...


Mitochondrial Physiology


Physiological performance of warm-adapted marine ectotherms: Thermal limits of mitochondrial energy transduction efficiency (with Eloy Martinez, Eric Hendricks, and Joseph J. Torres), Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology (2015)

Thermal regimes in aquatic systems have profound implications for the physiology of ectotherms. In particular,...



Tradeoffs of warm adaptation in aquatic ectotherms: Live fast, die young? (with A. P. Porreca, E. Martinez, and R. E. Colombo), Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology (2015)

In the face of a changing climate, questions regarding sub-lethal effects of elevated habitat temperature...



Identification of Disufide Bond Formation between MitoNEET and Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1 (with Morgan E. Roberts, Jacquelyn P. Crail, Megan M. Laffoon, William G. Fernandez, and Mary E. Konkle), Biochemistry (2013)

MitoNEET is a protein that was identified as a drug target for diabetes, but its...



Mitochondrial Energetics of Benthic and Pelagic Antarctic Teleosts (with Eloy Martinez and Joseph P. Torres), Marine Biology (2013)

Antarctic fauna are highly adapted to the frigid waters of the Southern Ocean. This study...



Improved Tolerance to Salt and Water Stress in Drosophila melanogaster Cells Conferred by Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein (with Matthew R. Marunde, Dilini A. Samarajeewa, John Anderson, Shumin Li, and Steven C. Hand), Journal of Insect Physiology (2013)

Mechanisms that govern anhydrobiosis involve the accumulation of highly hydrophilic macromolecules, such as late embryogenesis...




Preservation of eukaryotic cells using reversible pore formation (with Steven C. Hand) (2008)

A method is disclosed for reliably stabilizing eukaryotic cells that express the P2X.sub.7 receptor channel,...


No subject area


Genetic engineering, a hope for sustainable biofuel production: review (with Sudip Paudel), International Journal of Environment (2014)

The use of recently developed genetic engineering tools in combination with organisms that have the...