Squeezing flow viscometry for non-elastic semi liquid foods - Theory and Applications
In most conventional rheometers, notably the coaxial cylinders and capillary viscometers, the food specimen is pressed into a narrow gap and its structure is altered by uncontrolled shear. Also, most semiliquid foods exhibit slip, and consequently the measurements do not always reflect their true rheological properties. A feasible solution to these two problems is squeezing flow viscometry where the specimen, practically intact and with or without suspended particles, is squeezed between parallel plates. The outward flow pattern mainly depends on the friction between the fluid and plates or its absence ("lubricated squeezing flow"). Among the possible test geometries, the one of constant area and changing volume is the most practical for foods. The test can be performed at a constant displacement rate using common Universal Testing Machines or under constant loads (creep array). The tests output is in the form of a force-height, force-time, or height-time relationship, from which several rheological parameters can be derived. With the current state of the art, the method can only be applied at small displacement rates. Despite the method's crudeness, its results are remarkably reproducible and sensitive to textural differences among semiliquid food products. The flow patterns observed in foods do not always follow the predictions of rheological models originally developed for polymer melts because of the foods' unique microstructures. The implications of these discrepancies and the role that artifacts may play are evaluated in light of theoretical and practical considerations. The use of squeezing flow viscometry to quantify rheological changes that occur during a product's handling and to determine whether they are perceived sensorily is suggested.
Micha Peleg and O.H. Campanella. "Squeezing flow viscometry for non-elastic semi liquid foods - Theory and Applications" Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 42 (2002): 241-264.
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