Pharmacokinetics of imipramine in narcoleptic horses
OBJECTIVE: To validate use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in determining imipramine concentrations in equine serum and to determine pharmacokinetics of imipramine in narcoleptic horses. ANIMALS: 5 horses with adult-onset narcolepsy. PROCEDURE: Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after IV administration of imipramine hydrochloride (2 or 4 mg/kg of body weight). Serum was analyzed, using HPLC, to determine imipramine concentration. The serum concentration-versus-time curve for each horse was analyzed separately to estimate pharmacokinetic values. RESULTS: Adverse effects (muscle fasciculations, tachycardia, hyperresponsiveness to sound, and hemolysis) were detected in most horses when serum imipramine concentrations were high, and these effects were most severe in horses receiving 4 mg of imipramine/kg. Residual adverse effects were not apparent. Value (mean +/- SD) for area under the curve was 3.9 +/- 0.7 h X microg/ml, whereas volume of distribution was 584 +/- 161.7 ml/kg, total body clearance was 522 +/- 102 ml/kg/h, and mean residence time was 1.8 +/- 0.6 hours. One horse had signs of narcolepsy 6 and 12 hours after imipramine administration; corrresponding serum imipramine concentrations were less than the therapeutic range. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Potentially serious adverse effects may be seen in horses administered doses of imipramine that exceed a dosage of 2 mg/kg. Total body clearance of imipramine in horses is slower than that in humans; thus, the interval between subsequent doses should be longer in horses.
K E. Peck, Melissa T. Hines, K L. Mealey, and R H. Mealey. "Pharmacokinetics of imipramine in narcoleptic horses" American Journal of Veterinary Research 62.5 (2001): 783-786.
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