Cosmopolitanism, Individual-level Values and Cultural-level Values: A Cross-cultural Study
Cosmopolitanism (COS) is an important consumer characteristic for international market segmentation. To date, no empirical studies investigate how COS relates to consumer values. This research, involving samples of Canadians and Turks, focuses on the associations of individual- and cultural-level values to COS dispositions, and compares these relationships cross-culturally. The findings support the cross-cultural applicability of these constructs. While some of the COS-values relationships are consistent across the two cultures, others differ. Overall, COS is much more strongly associated with Schwartz's individual and cultural level values than with either Hofstede's cultural dimensions or demographics.
Mark Cleveland, Seçil Erdoğan, Gülay Arıkan, and Tuğça Poyraz. "Cosmopolitanism, Individual-level Values and Cultural-level Values: A Cross-cultural Study" Journal of Business Research (2011).