The Polar Expression of ENSO and Sea-Ice Variability as Recorded in a South Pole Ice Core
An annually dated ice core recovered from South Pole (2850 in a.s.l.) in 1995, that covers the period 1487-1992, was analyzed for the marine biogenic sulfur species methanesulfonate (MS). Empirical orthogonal function analysis is used to calibrate the high-resolution MS series with associated environmental series for the period of overlap (1973-92). Utilizing this calibration we present a similar to500 year long proxy record of the polar expression of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and southeastern Pacific sea-ice extent variations. These records reveal short-term periods of increased (1800-50, 1900-40) and decreased sea-ice extent (1550-1610., 1660-1710, 1760-1800). In general, increased (decreased) sea-ice extent is associated with a higher (lower) frequency of El Nino events.
Eric A. Myerson, Paul Andrew Mayewski, Karl J. Kreutz, L. David Meeker, Sallie I. Whitlow, and Mark S. Twickler. "The Polar Expression of ENSO and Sea-Ice Variability as Recorded in a South Pole Ice Core" Annals of Glaciology 35 (2002): 430-436.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/karl_kreutz/20