Journal articles


Comparison of two methods for the isolation of phytolith occluded carbon from plant material (with Leigh A. Sullivan), Plant and Soil (2014)

Background and aims

Phytolith occluded carbon (PhytOC) is of interest for isotope studies, dating of...



Diatom community response to climate variability over the past 37,000 years in the sub-tropics of the Southern Hemisphere (with Sarah C. Hembrow, Kathryn H. Taffs, Pia Atahan, Atun Zawadzki, and Henk Heijnis), Science of The Total Environment (2014)

Climate change is impacting global surface water resources, increasing the need for a deeper understanding...



AMS dating of ancient plant residues from experimental stone tools: a pilot study (with Andrea Yates, Andrew M. Smith, Anja Scheffers, and Renaud Joannes-Boyau), Journal of Archaeological Science (2013)

Residue analyses on stone artefacts have contributed to resolving functional questions in stone tool research....



Comment on "Possible source of ancient carbon in phytolith concentrates from harvested grasses" by G. M. Santos et al. (2012) (with Leigh A. Sullivan), Biogeosciences (2013)

Santos et al. (2012) address the important issue that 14C dating of the carbon occluded...



Occluded C in rice phytoliths: implications to biogeochemical carbon sequestration (with Zimin Li, Zhaoliang Song, and Hailong Wang), Plant and Soil (2013)

Aims: Carbon (C) bio-sequestration within the phytoliths of plants, a mechanism of long-term biogeochemical C...



Preparation and properties of TiO2/fumed silica composite photocatalytic materials (with Yan Yu and Jian Wang), Procedia Engineering (2012)

The fumed silica used to produce the photocatalytic materials. TiO2 gel was obtained using tetrabutyl...



Phytolith occluded carbon and silica variability in wheat cultivars (with Leigh A. Sullivan), Plant and Soil (2011)

Phytolith Occluded Carbon (PhytOC) has recently been demonstrated to be an important long-term terrestrial carbon...



Carbon bio-sequestration within the phytoliths of economic bamboo species (with Leigh A. Sullivan, Bihua Chen, Gongfu Ye, and Zheng Wiepeng), Global Change Biology (2010)

The rates of carbon bio-sequestration within silica phytoliths of the leaf litter of 10 economically...



Archaeobotany in Australia and New Guinea: practice, potential and prospects (with Tim Denham, Jennifer Atchison, Jeremy Austin, Sheahan Bestel, Doreen Bowdery, Alison Crowther, Nic Dolby, Andrew Fairbairn, Judith Field, Amanda Kennedy, Carol J. Lentfer, Carney Matheson, Sue Nugent, Matiu Prebble, Gail Robertson, Jim Specht, Robin Torrence, Huw Barton, Richard Fullagar, Simon Haberle, Mark Horrocks, Tara Lewis, and Peter Matthews), Australian Archaeology (2009)

Archaeobotany is the study of plant remains from archaeological contexts. Despite Australasian research being at...



Human adaptive responses to catastrophic landscape disruptions during the Holocene, Numundo, PNG (with William E. Boyd, Vicki Harriott, and Robin Torrence), Geographical Research (2009)

Prehistoric land use and social activity in West New Britain, PNG, are well documented, although...



Sugarcane phytoliths: Encapsulation and sequestration of a long-lived carbon fraction (with Leigh A. Sullivan and Robert Quirk), Sugar Tech (2009)

The potential to reduce emissions from agriculture and increase the amount of carbon captured in...



Sugarcane the champion crop at carbon sequestration (with Leigh A. Sullivan), Canegrower (2007)

Dr Jeff Parr and Professor Leigh Sullivan, both researchers from Southern Cross University and Plantstone...



Effect of fire on phytolith coloration, Geoarchaeology (2006)

Dark-colored phytoliths are often found preserved in paleosols and archaeological sediments. Some practitioners believe these...



Geochemistry (δ13C, δ15N, 13C NMR) and residence times ( 14C and OSL) of soil organic matter from red-brown earths of South Australia: implications for soil genesis (with Evelyn S. Krull, Erick A. Bestland, Jan O. Skjemstad, and A C. Mee), Geoderma (2006)

Soil forming processes important to the development of Red-Brown Earths (duplex soils) in southeastern Australia...



Using palaeobotanical techniques to guide peatland restoration. A case study from Byron Bay, Australia (with Kathryn H. Taffs and Keith G. Bolton), Ecological Management and Restoration (2006)


Interactions between human activity, volcanic eruptions and vegetation during the Holocene at Garua and Numundo, West New Britain, PNG (with William E. Boyd and Carol J. Lentfer), Quaternary Research (2005)

This paper reviews recent fossil phytolith analysis from wet tropical West New Britain (Papua New...



Soil carbon sequestration in Phytoliths (with Leigh A. Sullivan), Soil Biology and Biochemistry (2005)

The role of the organic carbon occluded within phytoliths (referred to in this text as...



A microwave digestion technique for the extraction of fossil diatoms from coastal lake and swamp sediments (with Kathryn H. Taffs and Christopher M. Lane), Journal of Paleolimnology (2004)

This study provides an introduction to a microwave digestion technique for the extraction of fossil...



Pleistocene colonisation of the Bismarck Archipelago: new evidence from West New Britain (with Robin Torrence, Vince Neall, Trudy Doelman, Ed Rhodes, Chris McKee, Hugh Davies, Roberto Bonetti, Alessandra Guglielmetti, Alberto Manzoni, Massimo Oddone, and Cleland Wallace), Archaeology in Oceania (2004)

The geological and archaeological signatures at the site of Kupona na Dari on the Willaumez...



13C-depleted charcoal from C3 and C4 grasses and the role of occluded carbon in phytoliths (with Evelyn S. Krull, Jan O. Skjemstad, D Graetz, K Grice, W Dunning, and G D. Cook), Organic Geochemistry (2003)

The δ13C values of plants and corresponding charred materials from wood, C3 and C4 grasses,...



Phytolith and starch analysis of sediment samples from two archaeological sites on Dauar Island, Torres Strait, northeastern Australia (with M Carter), Vegetation History and Archaeobotany (2003)

Current archaeological research suggests that first human occupation of the Torres Strait Islands occurred sometime...



A comparison of heavy liquid floatation and microwave digestion techniques for the extraction of fossil phytoliths from sediments, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (2002)

This paper reports the results of a comparative analysis of two techniques used for the...



The identification of Xanthorrhoea resins by starch morphology: Prospects for archaeological and taxonomic applications, Economic Botany (2002)

For Australian Aboriginal people plant resins have played an important role in both trade and...



The probable industrial origin of archaeological daub at an Iron Age site in Northeast Thailand (with William E. Boyd), Geoarchaeology (2002)

Determining probable firing temperatures of daub recovered from archaeological sites provides opportunities to interpret the...



A comparative analysis of wet and dry ashing techniques for the extraction of phytoliths from plant material (with Carol J. Lentfer and William E. Boyd), Journal of Archaeological Science (2001)

Two methods are commonly used for the extraction of phytoliths from plant material to be...



A microwave digestion method for the extraction of phytoliths from herbarium specimens (with V Dolic, Graham Lancaster, and William E. Boyd), Review of Palaeobotany & Palynology (2001)

The extraction of phytoliths from herbarium and/or fresh plant material to obtain a suite of...



Spatial patterning of a Lapita landscape at an archaeological site in West New Britain province, Papua New Guinea (with Carol J. Lentfer and William E. Boyd), Domodomo: Journal of the Fiji Museum (2001)


Once, twice maybe, but not three times: Reheating xanthorrhoea australis resin - not viable, Australian Archaeology (1999)

Hafting is a process in which a handle is attached to a stone tool adding...


Book chapters


The evolution of a coastal peatland at Byron Bay, Australia: multi-proxy evidence from the microfossil record (with Kathryn H. Taffs, Brendan Logan, and Geraldine E. Jacobsen), Terra Australis 34: peopled landscapes: archaeological and biogeographic approaches to landscapes (2012)

This impressive collection celebrates the work of Peter Kershaw, a key figure in the field...


Fires impact on an acidic peatland in northeastern NSW: implications for the interpretation of fire histories, pyrite formation and loss of organic carbon (with Geoffrey Kerr, J Arthur, and Kathryn H. Taffs), Interdisciplinary nuances in phytolith and other microfossil studies (2008)

Geochemical analysis of fragments of burnt and impressed cay (with William E. Boyd), The origins of the civilization of Ankor: Excavation of Noen U-Loke and Non Muang Kao (2007)

Morphological characteristics observed in the leaf phytolith of select gymnosperms of Eastern Australia (with Loraine Watson), Plants, people and places: Recent studies in phytolithic analysis (2007)

Microwave extraction of starch, Ancient starch research (2006)

Starch in resins, Ancient starch research (2006)

Conference publications


Raman, infrared and XPS study of bamboo phytoliths after chemical digestion (with Kym M. Watling, Llew Rintoul, Christopher L. Brown, and Leigh A. Sullivan), GeoRaman 2010, 9th International Conference on the Application of Raman Spectroscopy to the Earth Science, published in Spectrochimica Acta: Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy (2011)

Raman, infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies have been used to examine the effect of various...


Encapsulation of a long-lived carbon fraction in phytoliths (with Leigh A. Sullivan and Robert Quirk), Meeting the Challenges of Sugar Crops and Integrated Industries in Developing Countries: Proceedings of International Sugar (IS 2008) Conference (2008)

Deposition of plant silica, a long-lived soil fraction containing easily quantifiable carbon (with Leigh A. Sullivan), Proceedings International Symposium on Organic Matter Dynamics in Agro-Ecosystems (2007)

Green geosequestration: secure carbon sequestration via plant silica biomineralisation (with Leigh A. Sullivan), Awards Ceremony Speeches and Abstracts of the 17th Annual V. M. Goldschmidt Conference (2007)

Management of silica biomineralisation in crops to enhance soil carbon sequestration in agro-ecosystems (with Leigh A. Sullivan), Proceedings International Symposium on Organic Matter Dynamics in Agro-Ecosystems (2007)

Increasing long term soil carbon sequestration in agriculture and forestry (with Leigh A. Sullivan), Proceedings 18th World Congress of Soil Science (2006)

Terrestrial carbon sequestration is fundamental to the global carbon cycle and is being utilised to...


Phytolith-occluded carbon and the long-term soil organic carbon sequestration potential (with Leigh A. Sullivan), Soil science solving problems : ASSSI-ASPAC-ACMS National Soils Conference: book of abstracts (2006)


Carbon sequestration in plantstones (with Leigh A. Sullivan), Proceedings Managing the Carbon Cycle (2005)

Reconstructing fire histories: methods, interpretation and common on-ground across fire history research in Australia (with Geoffrey Kerr, J Arthur, Keith G. Bolton, Geraldine Jacobsen, and Kathryn H. Taffs), Australasian Archaeometry Conference (2005)


The potential of soil to securely sequestrate carbon: expanding the horizon (with Leigh A. Sullivan), Proceedings Managing the Carbon Cycle (2005)

Holocene vegetation dynamics in West New Britain, PNG (with William E. Boyd, Carol J. Lentfer, and C F. Jago), XI International Palynological Congress (2004)

Chronology and palaeoecology of an acidic wetland peat in northeastern NSW (with Kathryn H. Taffs and Keith G. Bolton), ESA ecology 2003 conference (2003)

Fires and their implications for acidic peatlands, northeastern NSW (with Kathryn H. Taffs, Geoffrey Kerr, and J Arthur), ESA ecology 2003 conference : abstracts, University of New England, Armidale, N.S.W., Australia, 8-10 December (2003)

Waste reduction and value adding during fossil phytolith extraction and palaeo-environmental analysis of volcanic sediments and tephra using Microwave Digestion and ICPMS (with K Farrugia), Proceedings : the state of the art in phytolith and starch research in the Australian-Pacific-Asian regions (2003)

Spatial analysis of fossil phytolith assemblages at an archaeological site in West New Britain, Papua New Guinea (with Carol J. Lentfer and William E. Boyd), The archaeology of Lapita dispersal in Oceania : papers from the fourth Lapita Conference (2001)


Lower Lakes phase carbon project (with Leigh A. Sullivan, Nicholas J. Ward, Richard T. Bush, Diane M. Fyfe, Michelle Bush, Roslyn Hagan, and Mark A. Rosicky), South Australian Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources (2012)

Forensics report (with Kathryn H. Taffs), Forensics Department, NSW Police (2007)

West Byron wetland vegetation history report. Unpublished. (with Kathryn H. Taffs), School of Environmental Science and Management Papers (2002)