Emerging brain-based interventions for children and adolescents: overview and clinical perspective
Electroencephalogram biofeedback (EBF), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) are emerging interventions that attempt to directly impact brain function through neurostimulation and neurofeedback mechanisms. This article provides a brief overview of each of these techniques, summarizes the relevant research findings, and examines the implications of this research for practice standards based on the guidelines for recommending evidence based treatments as developed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). EBF meets the "Clinical Guidelines" standard for ADHD, seizure disorders, anxiety, depression, and traumatic brain injury. VNS meets this same standard for treatment of refractory epilepsy and meets the lower "Options" standard for several other disorders. rTMS meets the standard for "Clinical Guidelines" for bipolar disorder, unipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Several conditions are discussed regarding the use of evidence based thinking related to these emerging interventions and future directions.
Laurence M. Hirshberg, Sufen Chiu, and Jean A. Frazier. "Emerging brain-based interventions for children and adolescents: overview and clinical perspective" Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America 14.1 (2005).
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/jean_frazier/31