Professor Issam AW Mohamed P.O. Box 12910-11111 Khartoum, Sudan Phone +249-122548254
Email issamawmohamed@hotmail.com 

I never stopped being amazed when I saw the Sun rising Born out of the sea or in genesis
out of the sands of the indefinite Sahara I was always mesmerized by the Sudan down at
the endless oceans of time Or its gradual disappearance in the waters of the Nile
confluence in the heart of Africa Tears come to my eyes with the birth of a new
child's cry I am absorbed when I read or watch justice being done, at the hands of
heroes or people in the streets. 

Humanity made huge steps towards being human. The world is getting together day by day,
to say no to selfishness, greed, totalitarianism and tyranny From Wall Street to Damascus
and Cairo, in the Nuba mountains and steppes of Darfur and Kordofan 

I want to live and be alive 

I want to die with the hope of being reincarnated I want to be free. 

Four months ago, I was deprived of my salary as an educator at the university. When I
asked why I was forced to retire, there were no answers. However, the regime's
people said that I speak too much and tell what they do not want people to see, even if
it was academic. I still give lectures but without being paid. Thus, the deprivation was
not complete. It is not that I am a rich man, in fact life is difficult considering the
inflation and continuous increases in commodities prices in my country. I feel all right
as I can read, write and give publish my opinions in the newspapers. It is best to my
heart to refer to DH Lawrence: I never saw a wild thing sorry for itself. A bird will
fall frozen dead from a bough without ever having felt sorry for itself. I was always
attached to his writings and his peer TE Lawrence of Arabia. Both had free minds and love
for wilderness. I wish breath freedom and that is why I could never accept enslavement at
any of its forms. A man is born free how could he be enslaved by regimes hunger and
destitute. 

Enslavement is not just done by putting chains in man's hands and feet or jailing
him in a cell or pit. Economic enslavement was know long time ago and identified in
colonization by foreign or external forces. The modern enslavement is strongly
characterized by indigenous colonization through tyranny, totalitarianism and corruption.
After sixty years,most countries of the world were seemingly politically liberated and
gained phenotypic independence, most of their people live in poverty, destitute,
deprivation, epidemics dictatorships, underdevelopment severe disparities and
desperation. If we measure disparities we shall conclude in Sub Sahara Africa that
incomes may have increased but distribution shrinks everyday. The demise of the middle
class was achieved successfully by concentrating wealth in the upper strata of 1-3% of
the elite population. That is how people in Tunisia Libya, Yemen, Egypt, Syria and Sudan
are in the move in social revolutions manifesting their revulsion to be always the
underdogs. To my friend and colleague Ibn Omar, we always shared thoughts of freedom and
love to the Great Sahara in Kordofan, Darfur and the Northern regions. We love Camels and
their milk. We love the Bedouins and care about their lives. However, without education
how can they survive a changing world built on usuary, market economy and greed. We have
to fight for them and for our families. As an academician, I do not hold a weapon but I
try to give my thoughts. 

Did you see Al Pacino acting as a blind retired officer. That did not stop him from
dancing with a beautiful lady in New York. His Tango dance with her a release of passion
for life, defiance of his blindness. How can we be that courageous to defy tyrants though
it is easier than defying blindness. 

He was seeing and we are blind 

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Summary of Qualifications Issam Abdel Wahab Mohamed: Professor Doctor, Faculty of
Commerce, Economics and Social Studies and Dean of the Nile Basin Research Center at
Alneelain University. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد عبد الوهاب : أستاذ دكتور . كلية التجارة
والدراسات الاقتصادية والاجتماعية – جامعة النيلين ، الخرطوم – السودان . Date of Birth
& Social Status Berber, Northern Sudan; 21 October, 1955 بربر ، 21 / أكتوبر 1955 .
Married and has five children. متزوج ولي خمسة أطفال . Education Khartoum University-Sudan
(graduation 1984) and Ph.D. Economics, Nagoya University-Japan (graduation 1993).
Econometric Analysis of Impacts of Macroeconomic Policies on Developing Countries: Case
Study of Sudan. Professional Experience: 1- Junior-Senior Research Officer: 1975–1990:
Ministry of Agriculture of the Sudan. 2- Ph.D. Scholarship at Nagoya University,
Japan-1989-1993 as a Research Associate (1994-1995). 3- Fellow Researcher. 4-
Post-Doctoral, Division of Socioeconomics of Food Production, Nagoya University -
1995-1997. 5- Associate Professor, Alneelain University (1997-2000). 6- Professor (2000)
Alneelain University 

Teaching Experience الخبرة التدريسية Sub-graduates: Faculty of Commerce, Economics and
Social Studies, Alneelain University 1- كلية التجارة والدراسات الاقتصادية والاجتماعية ،
جامعة النيلين (a) Econometrics, الاقتصاد القياسي (b) Agricultural Economics, الاقتصاد
الزراعي (c) Economic Information Systems, نظم المعلومات الاقتصادية (d) Management
Information Systems نظم المعلومات الإدارية (e) Developmental Economics. اقتصاديات التنمية
(f) International Trade التجارة الدولية 

2- Faculty of Engineering, Alneelain University كلية الهندسة ، جامعة النيلين (a) An
Introduction to Engineering Economics مقدمة في الاقتصاد الهندسي (b) Introduction to
General Management مدخل إلي علم الادارة 3- Faculty of Statistics, Demography and
Information Sciences-Alneelain University كلية الإحصاء والدراسات السكانية وتقنية
المعلومات (a) An Introduction to Econometrics مقدمة في الاقتصاد القياسي (b) Decision
Support Systems نظم دعم القرارات 4- Faculty of Business and Management Sciences, Sudan
International University كلية إدارة الأعمال ، جامعة السودان العالمية (a) Total Quality
Management (TQM) إدارة الجودة الشاملة (b) Management Information Systems )MIS) نظم
المعلومات الإدارية (c) Banking Information System (BIS) نظم المعلومات المصرفية (d)
Operation Research بحوث العمليات 5- Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Alneelain
University كلية التقانة الزراعية ، جامعة النيلين (a) Agricultural Economics الاقتصاد
الزراعي (b) Computer Applications تطبيقات حاسوبية (c) Experimental Design تصميم التجارب 

Post Graduates 1- Master Degree in Economic Development Course ماجستير الاقتصاد بالمناهج
(a) Economic Sectors Planning التخطيط القطاعات الاقتصادي (b) Data and Information
Collection Skills مهارات جمع وتحليل المعلومات (c) Food Security Management الأمن الغذائي
2- Master Degree in Accounting by Courses ماجستير المحاسبة بالمناهج Research Methodology
مناهج البحث 3- High Diploma in Business Management Course الدبلوم العالي لإدارة الأعمال
Management Information Systems )MIS) نظم المعلومات الإدارية 

4- Master Degree by Courses, Institute for Disaster Control and Refugees Studies, Africa
University ماجستير بالمناهج : معهد دراسات اللاجئين والكوارث – جامعة أفريقيا Research
Methodology and Statistics مناهج البحث والإحصاء أوراق منشورة حديثا ، عنوان الورقة واسم
المجلة ومستخلصها . Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor of Economics Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics P.O. Box 12910-11111 Khartoum, Khartoum 11111 Sudan 249122548254
(Phone) Issam A.W. Mohamed's Scholarly Papers Papers (98) Authors Date Downloads
Citations 

1. Hyenas and Lambs: The Implications of Impacts of South Sudan Secession | Hide Abstract
| Download | Conflict Studies Journal, Vol. 5, No. 14, February 11, 2011. Abstract The
present paper analyzes the impacts of the Southern Sudan secession. It is concluded that
the feasible and eminent secession of Southern Sudan, triggered similar process in Darfur
region and feasibly other parts of the country. The two newly formed nations can get into
a form of Union: confederate with two armies and a rotating presidency and national
parliament or in a commercial and legal like the European Union. That is the most likely
option, since the South and the North are more connected geographically, ethnically with
the Hemitic blood forming a main part in the Arabs and non Arabs of the North and in the
Nilotic and Hemitic-Nilotic of the South. However, it is most important to look into
possibilities of changing the structure of the current political system which may be the
prime impediment for future cooperation between the two nations. Keywords: South Sudan,
Secession, Ethnicity, Political System 

2. Trade Liberalization and Poverty in Sudan Journal of Emerging Markets Economics:
Environmental & Social Aspects, Vol. 2, No. 27, March 18, 2011 Abstract The current
paper reviews poverty issues and economic development in Sudan. The conclusions focus on
the conception that unless Sudan increases his economic activity and hence employment,
the economic situation will see more deteriorations. Applying marker economy and trade
liberalization policies will not help, more feasibly it will worsen food security and
employment rates. The declining trend in international trade taxes resulting from trade
liberalization typically would have a serious negative impact on the government budget in
general, and on expenditure on education, health and transfers to the poorer segments of
the society. This is likely to contribute to the aggravation of absolute poverty. The
experience of trade liberalization in African countries underscores the need for proper
tax policy responses and macroeconomic stability to contain the negative fiscal effects
of trade liberalization. When the market structure of agricultural exports is
oligopolistic, as in most African countries, trade monopolies, not the producers are the
main beneficiaries of any increase in the price of exports resulting from trade
liberalization. It is concluded that improvements of incidence of poverty cannot be
separated from the institutional and political make-up of a country. Trade
Liberalization, WTO, COMESA, Poverty, Sudan 

3. The Janjaweed, the Armed Movements and the Political Disintegration of Sudan Conflict
Studies Journal, Vol. 5, No. 8, January 28, 2011 Abstract The present paper is part of
unpublished book divided into three interrelated manuscripts that analyze the collapse of
the Sudan. The current paper concludes that the rebellion by certain groups in Darfur
region has triggered a further a counteraction by other tribes of Arab descendants. The
counter-actors were recruited by an unprecedented tyrannical regime to submit the rebels
but succeeded only in genocide and the turning over the regime and started their own
rebellion. That resulted in an intricate situation carrying all symptoms of chaos. Truly,
the regime maintained its existence but with continuously deteriorating life condition in
Darfur region. The final result is an amalgamation of rebels from both sides to topple
the regime at huge cost. The existence of Islamic Sharia Laws imposed by the Bashir
regime is dubious. The separation of Darfur and Kordofan regions and birth of New Desert
Nation is a feasible solution. That will add to current disintegration process Sudan
endures. Janjaweed, Political Disintegration, Sudan
________________________________________ 4. The Impact of Privatization on State-Owned
Enterprises Performance and Efficiency: Case Study of Sudan Airways Antitrust Law and
Policy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 21, February 28, 2011 Abstract The current paper analyzes the
impacts of privatization of Sudan air carrier, Sudan Airways. The hypothetical framework
in this study is that alternative policies other than privatization are feasible. Sudan
airways represents the sovereignty of the country carrying its flag, its objectives is in
discrepancy with the foreign share holder objectives. The experience shows that
privatization needs large amount of capital plus qualified managerial, technical,
financial and marketing cadres. Pre-privatization, a reconstruction plan improved the
performance of the company. That encourages more work to improve the efficiency.
Sub-private companies performing on profit means can be created to increase the profit of
the company, such as special flight, hotels and catering, cargo and any other companies.
Mildest forms of privatization and load shedding may be possible in present
circumstances. That means keeping state enterprises with the public sector and reforming
them as the course to those concerned with efficiency of government services. Attaining
social values subsidized prices sometimes is more profitable than commercial profits.
Dominance of foreign share holders may affect the objectives of the firm as it is also
vulnerable to corruptions. Sudan Airways, State Enterprises, Privatization, Efficiency 

5. The Impacts of Health Insurance System on Poverty Alleviation in Sudan: Case Study of
the National Fund for Health Insurance in Khartoum State (2003-2009) Health Economics
Journal. Vol. 3, No. 52, 2011 Abstract The current paper analyzes the role of health
insurance in mitigating poverty severity in Sudan the case study of National Fund for
Health Insurance-Khartoum State. It is highlighting the role of health insurance in
lifting the cost-burden of medical treatment on poor families. The principle target is to
introduce problems that negatively affect individuals and the range health insurance
covers in the society. Moreover, the paper shall analyze the necessary and basic needs of
poor families related to covering risk of illness. That includes health services that
health insurance system provides. Field surveys were conducted for real data from
selected population in Khartoum State and were analyzed, graphically and with
cross-tabulation. The primary observed findings are that there is lack of database in
relation to poor families in the state. However, health centers were available overall
parts of the state and localities. That is an indicative of more awareness that reduces
the cost of transportation for the poor. Based on the findings, it is recommended that it
is necessary to promote health services of high quality with less cost. Wealthy people
should be motivated to pay. Moreover, it is vital to set up a mechanism to improve living
circumstances of the poor categories. Sudan, Social Parameters, National Health
Insurance, Income, Poverty Impacts 

6. Challenges of Formal Social Security Systems in Sudan Global Journal of Human Social
Sciences (GJHSS), Vol. 11, No. 2, March 2011 Abstract The present paper discusses issues
of challenges of social security systems in Sudan. Following parameters advanced by ILO
and UNCOSOC, those systems are analyzed. The conclusions focus on their applicability
that faces axial difficulties mainly presented in the state of institutional interregnum
facing the country. Moreover, it is important to revisit aspects of social cohesion that
serves greater role in traditional social security in the Sudan. Social Security, Sudan 

7. Review of Relationships Between Trade Liberalization and Poverty in Developing
Countries Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 3, No. 54, March 17, 2011 Abstract The
current paper reviews relationships trade liberalization and issues of welfare in
developing countries. The structure of WTO is historically reviewed then impacts on
developing countries are foresighted. It is concluded that interests on the simple people
level can be affected by trade restrictions and barriers. Disparities on income generated
from trade are seen. That is obvious in the recent data on the siphoning of surpluses
through the ruling elites. That is, especially true in developing countries that refrain
from joining the WTO. The stunning news of hundreds of billions in dollars stuffed by
certain leaders, dethroned or still ruling reveal unprecedented corruption. The primary
aim of the WTO is to enhance trade between countries, globally with a minimization of
possible hindrances or obstacles, with especial regard to allow small producers, farmers
or herders to have a fair portion of their products. That calls for enforcing
transparency parameters on members of the WTO. Moreover, such call for transparency
cannot be achieved without democracy, whereas under totalitarian regimes such freedoms of
production, justice, equal shares, press freedom and criticism are not feasible. Without
application of true democracy, there shall always be crisis in production, civil wars,
sabotage and dis-enhancement for small producers to produce. International Trade,
Developing Countries, Liberalization, WTO, Totalitarian Regimes 

8. The Impacts of Social Justice and Wealth Distribution in Sudan Law, Institutions and
Development Journal, Vol. 9, No. 10, February 23, 2011 Abstract The present paper is part
of unpublished book that analyzes the political, social and economic collapse of the
Sudan. Economic, social and distributive disparities triggered a process for the
disintegration of the nation under the pretext of imposing Islamic Sharia Laws. A
pronounced prominent conflict is manifested for new mechanisms to redistribute the
wealth, especially after the secession of the country's Southern Region in January
2011. A leviathan regime extracted the economic surpluses which enhanced poverty, civil
wars and diffused cries for further secession. The current paper bluntly proposes
mechanisms to halt the sequestered civil rights and enhance a redistributive process.
Wealth Distribution, Social Justice, Sudan 

9. Review of Civil Armed Conflicts and Impacts on Education in Darfur Crisis Versions (2)
(211,136) Review of Civil Armed Conflicts and Impacts on Education in Darfur Crisis
Immigration, Refugee and Citizenship Law Journal, Vol. 12, No. 33, April 5, 2011 Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The study presented
here depends on a field survey of refugees' camps in war strived Darfur region. The
data are genuine from people and children. Besides my conclusions on impacts on
education, I hereby profess that what happens on the camps generate only further economic
destitute and entrenching social hatred for the Sudanese nation. I review and analyze
here the reasons and causes of Darfur strive with the effects of the broad civil
conflicts on education and human capital in the region. Variables implied here are
central on education, which are related to the fragmentation of the previously known
social cohesion. The conflict spread to all parts of the region. The prominent identified
conclusion is that there is an institutional and structural interregnum that resulted in
disappearing tools of governance. Field data were used to present the review and
conclusions. Recurrent droughts, invisible development, struggles on land use and
ownership led to flaring armed conflicts. The general services of health, water and
education, though meager collapsed. Previous arrangements for the education of the nomads
collapsed with the armed conflicts. Regular educational facilities deteriorated. In
refugees' camps very little efforts were achieved. NGOs role in helping education
with facilities, tools and funding were noticeable with less governmental efforts. The
conclusions here imply that the collapse of social cohesion, continued armed conflict and
expansions of refugees' camps will only hatch more violence and conflicts. Human
Capital, Education, Darfur, Civil Conflict, Social Cohesion, Refugees Camps, NGOs,
Education 

Labor and Human Capital Journal, Vol. 3, No. 54, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics Abstract The study presented here depends on a field
survey of refugees' camps in war srived Darfur region. The data are genuine from
people and children. Besides my conclusions on impacts on education, I hereby profess
that what happens on the camps generate only further economic destitute and entrenching
social hatred for the Sudanese nation. I review and analyze here the reasons and causes
of Darfur conflict with the effects of the broad civil conflicts on education and human
capital in the region. Variables implied here are central on education, which are related
to the fragmentation of the previously known social cohesion. The conflict spread to all
parts of the region. The prominent identified conclusion is that there is an
institutional and structural interregnum that resulted in disappearing tools of
governance. Field data were used to present the review and conclusions. Recurrent
droughts, invisible development, struggles on land use and ownership led to flaring armed
conflicts. The general services of health, water and education, though meager collapsed.
Previous arrangements for the education of the nomads collapsed with the armed conflicts.
Regular educational facilities deteriorated. In refugees' camps very little efforts
were achieved. NGOs role in helping education with facilities, tools and funding were
noticeable with less governmental efforts. The conclusions here imply that the collapse
of social cohesion, continued armed conflict and expansions of refugees' camps will
only hatch more violence and conflicts. Sudan, Darfur Conflict, Education, Human Capital,
Nomads, Sedentaries, Destitution, NGO 

10. Effects of Macroeconomic Variables on Inflation Rates in Sudan (1990-2008)
Macroeconomics, Prices, Business Fluctuations and Cycles Journal, Vol. 4, No. 39, March
28, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The
current paper analyzes the effects macroeconomic variables on inflation in of Sudan. The
selected data set was from 1990-2008. During that time there were significant changes in
macroeconomic policies that had strong impacts on the performance of the Sudanese
economy. A strong wave of hyperinflation was recorded during the beginning years of the
1990s. That was followed by relative stabilization and less inflation rates. Similar
changes in the monetary policies were observed. Part of the 1990 implemented package of
policies to solve the shortage of foreign exchange problem provoked increasing the supply
of domestic currency. Free market economy was adopted through liberalizing trade and
boosted exerting efforts to promote exports, besides adopting encouraging policies for
the benefit of increasing productivity. The results reveal that there are negative
effects of some macroeconomic variables on inflation, specifically GDP which records
(β=6.0). Thus, GDP had the greatest effect on inflation. Money supply also positively
affected inflation which reveals possible increases, governmental deficit financing and
printing banknotes. The coefficient of determination (R2=94.0) verifies the model
results. There was also a positive but weak and insignificant correlation between deficit
financing and foreign currencies exchange rates. That corroborate conclusions that
whenever exchange rate is determined by the market forces with weak economic productive
base the impacts fall on income. It is possible that implementing floating exchange rates
weakened the economic productive sectors of the country. Macroeconomic Variables,
Inflation, Deficit Financing, GDP 

11. Analysis of Impact of Cash Out-Flow from the Banking Sector on the Sudanese Economy
Banking and Financial Institutions Journal, Vol. 3, No. 39, March 7, 2011 Issam A.W.
Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract Sudan as an example of
LDCs the banking sector has been suffering from the problem of cash outflow over the last
three decades, generating the following impacts: Loss of banking sector of its role of
financial intermediation, cash scarcity in the banking sector, large government
borrowings from unreal source of finance, thus, more inflation. The research attempts to
specify the main determinants of cash outflow from the banking sector in Sudan (during
the period 1972-2001). Hence, those revealing the major impacts of the cash outflow on
the economic activity and rates of inflation. The research hypotheses were: (1) the Banks
economic behavior of attainment reserves and expanding loans is main cause of cash
outflow, (2) the government financial activity to cover its budget deficits, and the
effective demand for money liquidity by the public are the main factors transmitting the
impacts of cash outflow to the major macroeconomic variables (Money stock, aggregate
demand and supply, cost of resource adjustment, and the rate of inflation), (3)
Monetization of bank loans via allowing the growth in the effective demand for liquidity
by the public directly leads to aggravation of inflation given the downward trend of
money velocity, (4) Monetization of bank loans via financing the current deficits of the
government, causes an inflationary pressures due to aggregate demand expansion, the real
side of the economy will not be affected. Using twelve equations-mathematical model
systems with endogenous variables: the demand for effective money liquidity, the nominal
and real growth of money stock, the demand for real balances, cost of resources
adjustment, the aggregate demand, Gross Domestic Product GDP, the capital stock, the
private investment, rate of inflation, bank loans, velocity of wide money, and the
current budget deficit. Moreover, the general price level index, the real output trend
and its actual deviations from that trend, quasi money, real depreciation of the local
currency, the labor force size, the private savings and excess reserves held by banks as
exogenous variables were used. Based on annual data of Sudan economy for the study
period, Iterative Weighted Two-Stage Least Squares (IWTLS) were applied through running
an econometric computer program of E-views. The Results revealed that monetization in
Sudan is mainly determined by the availability of Bank loans which in turn are affected
largely by banks’ ability to form excess reserves, by dominated the government borrowing,
and less by liquidity preference of the public. Moreover, Money stock has great
endogeneity. The bank loans expansion in Sudan economy may induce liquidity preference or
may cause inflation through inducement of monetary growth by the BOS. Inflation growth
may exceed the monetary growth. So, real money growth falls and thus de-accelerates
velocity and causes economic recession. On the other hand, the bank loans expansions
encourage the government to incur large deficits thus pulling the aggregate demand and
aggravate inflation with no effect on the real side of the economy. The research
recommended controlling the process of monetization, through controlling banks’ ability
to expand loans, good perception to the growth in liquidity preference, and sizing of the
government borrowing. To control liquidity preference the government borrowing must be
rationed and the policy must be of minimum impact on inflation. To avoid high liquidity
preference associated with less velocity, the policy must be designed to facilitate bank
loans to the prior productive sectors and the government borrowing must be rationed and
real sources for financing deficits must be developed. Macroeconomic Analysis, Banking,
Cash outflow, Sudan 

12. Statistical Approaches and System Dynamics Econometrics, Mathematical Method and
Programming Journal, Vol. 4. No. 35, May 09, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics Abstract The current paper reviews statistical
methods as integrated with the System Dynamics modeling. The methods described here are
mostly statistical in nature, though some are outside the conventional definitions. The
use of these techniques need not necessarily bring out positive results always but an
attempt at changing the parameter values and averaging constants is worth trying. Even
small changes in the model structure may bring out satisfactory results. Distribution lag
function represents a general scheme for correlating current values of one variable with
past values of another variable. Even if an explanation is found for establishing a
relationship between two variables, the regression model described here is not in a
position to explain why there is presence of delay. Models representing these variables
are forced to give explanations for delays. In other words the models are forced to give
a causal explanation why a delay occur between xt and Yt and specify its nature. A causal
theory may provide an answer why xt affects Yt but fails to explain why there is a delay
present. The accumulation provides answers but not the distributed lag functions. This
shows that the accumulation forces System Dynamics modeler to provide a causal
relationship for the dynamic behavior while the distributed lag approach overrides this
aspect and considers only the correlation. Correlation approach can obscure errors in a
model while causal explanation provides more points of contact with reality and makes
corroboration or refutation more possible. Statistical Analysis, System Dynamics,
Distribution lag function, Correlations 

13. Potentials of Irrigated Agriculture in Improvement of Food Security in Southern Sudan
Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 3, No. 68, April 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract Southern Sudan population has
chosen secession in January 2011 referendum and independence shall be declared next July.
However, its food production capabilities are still hindered by weak or nonexistent
infrastructure, meager labor-force and effects of long civil war that hampered
development and destroyed agricultural schemes. The current paper reviews possible
improvements of food production and security in the south as a cornerstone for future
development in the future state. Introduction of specific crops is feasible to improve
parameters of future economic sectors development. Maize is suggested as a staple crop to
support traditional farmers. The provision of extension and plant protection services
need to be strengthened in areas where maize is being cultivated. Moreover, management
must be streamlined to cope up with the expected activities during the first expansion
phase. Extensive training of all the categories working in agricultural development is
the top priority. In order to improve productivity, high yielding crops varieties have to
be released for cultivation in other ecological zones where research has shown that the
conditions are suitable for maize production. The production relationships are invisible.
Therefore, farmers have to be employed for production of the maize seeds by recognized
research institutions in Southern Sudan. The current issue on land rights, land ownership
have to be settled once and for all which may in turn encourage the investors to come to
Southern Sudan. Most important is the improvement of the available credit to small-scale
farmers as they are limited without government guarantee. Traditional farmers and small
farmers in the semi-mechanized sector are risky clients for credit because of their
unpredictable environment, low and fluctuating yields remote location and inadequate
structures for making and support services. Nevertheless, small farmers would have
substantial potential if it is were possible to increase average farm size, improved
technology, access to credit provide better infrastructure such as roads and domestic
water supply. Secession, Southern Sudan, Food Security, Maize 

14. Kleptocracy, Totalitarianism and Corruption Institutions and Transition Economics
Political Economy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 23, March 16, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics Abstract The present paper is part of unpublished
book divided into three interrelated manuscripts that analyze the collapse of the Sudan.
The theory introduced here is that the regime was built on kleptocratic framework. That
enhanced a rapid transformation of the values' system of the country and
disintegration of its social cohesion. The result was a submission of the mass. Another
strong tool was the subjugation of the press through detainment, exclusion and
terrorization. The take over of the country's institutions enhanced wide spread
corruption which can be described as system's inherent and cannot be ridden of as it
is structurally protected. Destitute was rife and the dilemma of civil war produced more
internally displaced who lived in the margins. The paper concludes that the
legitimization of such systematic behavior rendered structural failure to the regime.
Civil War, Kleptocracy, Totalitarianism, Corruption 

15. Economic Vision for Regional Nile River Basin Planning Political Economy: Development
Journal, Vol. 4, No. 42, March 07, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics Abstract This paper examines a variety of approaches to the issue
of Nile river Basin planning with a special reference to the model of The Permanent Joint
Technical Commission of the Nile Waters between Sudan and Egypt (PJTC) and experiences
from eleven Sub-Saharan African (SSA) River Basin Organizations. The paper also
highlights the complexity of regional planning taking into consideration the River Nile
unique situation. Furthermore the study stresses the need for a regional planning
approach, and suggests the appropriate tools to achieve it. Nile River, Planning,
Sharing, Technical Commission 

16. Totalitarianism, Economic Growth and Corruption Microeconomics, Welfare Economics and
Collective Decision-Making Journal, Vol. 3, No. 92, June 02, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract In a strong sense, corruption is
an epidemic that coexists with anthropogenic moral structure and behavior. However, the
impacts of institutional corruption can lead to distortions in business cycles and
drastic damages to a country's collective economic and social performance. In this
essay, we summarize some research that explores causes and consequences of corruption.
There are few theories of corruption. The limited availability of data subjects lead to
many uncertainties. Still, other studies provide tentative evidence that corruption may
seriously inhibit long-term economic growth and increase the inconsistencies of business
cycles. Corruption is seen as a vice in a country, but we insist here that it is an
epidemic unless cured by governments that should figure out effective ways to combat it.
If unsuccessful, consequences are grave. Its infestation can threaten the existence of a
nation. Corruption, Business Cycle, Economic Inconsistency 

17. Sudanese North-South Border Tribes, Economic Interactions and Seeds of Conflict
Conflict Resolution and Prevention Management Issam A.W. Mohamed Abstract The crisis of
Greater Darfur Region of Sudan extends to other regions as the South Sudan prepares for
secession next July 2011. In the past eight years Sudan's crisis in Darfur was
amplified by global news media all over the world. Civil conflict erupted, developed into
armed rebellions and open uncontrolled war that enveloped the whole region. The current
inflamed future borders between the south and north are also facing growing tensions. In
this current paper we present some information on the what we see as the seeds of
conflicts with the complicated tribal structures in both sides and expected disputes on
land, borders and resources. Conflict, Borders, Tribal Structure, Resources 

18. Totalitarianism, Elections and Inevitable Demise Political Institutions and Elections
Journal, Vol. 4, No. 12, March 17, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics Abstract The present paper is part of unpublished book divided
into three interrelated manuscripts that analyze the collapse of the Sudan. The current
paper concludes that the decision of the International Criminal Court to arrest President
Bashir initiated a desire to legitimize his regime through rigging the election of 2010.
The result was inevitable secession of its Southern part and the total revulsion of the
people of his regime. That triggered a process for the disintegration of a tyrannical
regime. The paper discusses how the elections conducted in 2010 were forged. That began a
downward process of disintegration catalyzed by his threats of imposing strict Islamic
Sharia Laws in the country after the secession of its Southern part. Pronounced and
prominent conflicts erupted within the ruling elite. The imposed dogma by a hegemonic
regime threatens the existence of the nation per se. The contesting voices demanded
rights of sequestered economic resources, violated civil rights and genocides in the
country's regions. The result is that the country is in de facto division and
disintegration process. The generated vacuum of institutional interregnum enhances the
failure of the state. Tyranny, Elections, Institutional Interregnum, Demise 

19. Referendum, Secession and Intermixed Tribal Structure in Western-Southern Sudan
National, State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations Journal, Vol. 4, No.
55, April 27, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract Tribal intermixtures and interactions between groups of Southern Kordofan and
Northern Bahr Al Gazal provinces are wide and old. However, the previous coexistence that
dominated one country provinces was torn down by calls for secession by the southern
region of Sudan. The province of Abyei represents a pocket that tribal groups live in.
Now it became of focal point of future entrenched war-candidate similar to India-Pakistan
Kashmir. The decision of secession of Southern Sudan escalated to open calls for total
independence that involved drawing borders and arguments to conflicts on specific regions
bordering the two parts of Sudan. One of them is the Abyei region that two tribes demand
as their own, the Arab Messeriya and the Dinka Ngok. The conflict was taken to
international courts solutions were drawn in the presidency institution of Sudan.
Nevertheless, they still continue even with agreements or solution sponsored by
international mediators, United Nations and United States envoys. Armed clashes resulted
in population displacements in addition to victims from both sides. However, other ethnic
groups have historical ownership rights which were recognized by researchers, the Dago
and the Shat. They were marginalized and deprived of land rights and inhibition on their
great fatherlands. The current paper postulates the agreements and conventions were built
on wrong and inhuman assumptions and solutions, which is that the region is inhabited
solely and belongs to the Arab Messeriya and the Dinka Ngok, whereas the basic human
concept is that land is for who inhabit and utilize it. Applying those short sighted
solution is only fueling future and bloodier strive for existence from the marginalized
and deprived anthropogenic groups who may have claims. In this paper we review some
characteristics of the Abyei province and focusing on the nomadic tribe of Messirya.
Administration, Sudan, Messirya, Dinka, Intermix, Referendum, Secession, Conflict 

20. Globalization and Economic Partnerships Effects on International Trade with Reference
to Sudan Versions (2) Globalization and Economic Partnerships Effects on International
Trade with Reference to Sudan International Trade Journal, Vol. 3, No. 65, 2011 Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract Obvious
contradictions and inconformity are manifested in two different worlds: a rich wealthy
world, and a poor impoverished one. Economic inconformity is assured by many proving that
the minority rich does not exceed 20% of the world population that retains the remaining
80% of the world economic resources and wealth. That leaves rest majority population less
than 20% of resources and wealth. On the other hand the new global economic system
deepens that economic variation not only between countries, but even between persons and
communities. Global economic imbalance result from resources conflicts and wars generated
by disparities and threatens necessary stability for feasible development. Advanced
industrialize countries have responsibilities with international economic relations.
However, that is an accumulated of trade imbalanced relations between various
humanitarian communities. The situation creates economic imbalance that make a loser side
of developing countries. They take the burden of seeking a solution and efforts in this
race by first getting rid of the political and economic conflicts. The required
diversification necessitates forming economic relations between themselves, hence
themselves and advanced countries. The diversifications result in a complete change of
different communities through international economic relations and move forward to form
multilateral economic relation instead, establishing common markets and regional economic
bodies. With the new millennium the international economy entered complicated stages that
huge economic alliances, global financial markets, and monetary financial union such as
European Union were set up. The analysis of economic relationships and their forms is
carried out in order to reveal impacts on aggregate international economy and explore
economic engines that can deepen the interdependence between all international economic
combinations and how to conform a better way between the common interest of different
countries. The case study on Sudan stands to embody the model of economic alliance
between developing and rich countries and answer which is better. International economic
relations apply to the regional economic gathering system as an amalgamated economic
unions or bilateral economic partnership. The basic question of imploring possibilities
to make conformity economic partnership between developing and rich countries is
presented and how the international economy look on the long run whether such partnership
can be established or not. Globalization, Developing Countries, Privatization, Economic
Partnerships, Hegemony 

Globalization and Economic Partnerships Effects on International Trade with Reference to
Sudan Development Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 74, April 14, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract Obvious contradictions and
inconformity are manifested in two different worlds: a rich wealthy world, and a poor
impoverished one. Economic inconformity is assured by many proving that the minority rich
does not exceed 20% of the world population that retains the remaining 80% of the world
economic resources and wealth. That leaves rest majority population less than 20% of
resources and wealth. On the other hand the new global economic system deepens that
economic variation not only between countries, but even between persons and communities.
Global economic imbalance result from resources conflicts and wars generated by
disparities and threatens necessary stability for feasible development. Advanced
industrialize countries have responsibilities with international economic relations.
However, that is an accumulated of trade imbalanced relations between various
humanitarian communities. The situation creates economic imbalance that make a loser side
of developing countries. They take the burden of seeking a solution and efforts in this
race by first getting rid of the political and economic conflicts. The required
diversification necessitates forming economic relations between themselves, hence
themselves and advanced countries. The diversifications result in a complete change of
different communities through international economic relations and move forward to form
multilateral economic relation instead, establishing common markets and regional economic
bodies. With the new millennium the international economy entered complicated stages that
huge economic alliances, global financial markets, and monetary financial union such as
European Union were set up. The analysis of economic relationships and their forms is
carried out in order to reveal impacts on aggregate international economy and explore
economic engines that can deepen the interdependence between all international economic
combinations and how to conform a better way between the common interest of different
countries. The case study on Sudan stands to embody the model of economic alliance
between developing and rich countries and answer which is better. International economic
relations apply to the regional economic gathering system as an amalgamated economic
unions or bilateral economic partnership. The basic question of imploring possibilities
to make conformity economic partnership between developing and rich countries is
presented and how the international economy look on the long run whether such partnership
can be established or not. International Trade, Globalization, Disparities, Developing
Countries, Economic Partnerships 

21. Oil Discovery, Exploitation and Curse in Sudan Political Institutions, Bureaucracies
and Public Administration, Vol. 5, No. 39, March 17, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics Abstract The present paper discusses the impacts of
oil discovery in Sudan. The subsequent exploitation of oil enhanced gradual deterioration
in the country's social cohesion and accelerated armed movements. That was triggered
by complaints of ill-distribution of wealth, development and political power within the
country. The secession of Southern Sudan is a strong example that was followed by louder
calls for the secession of other parts. Transparency is rare commodity with the
regime's structure that rendered the people into disbelief of the GNP volumes and
suspicions of corruption in the oil production sector. Moreover, in rural areas, where
there are environmental damages because of oil industry, very little was done to
ameliorate the situation by trickle down mechanism or infusing direct development,
services and education. There were louder calls for secession rather than attempts to
reform the system. The conclusions are that eminent and de facto present changes are
required. Oil Curse, National Disintegration, Corruption, Secession 

22. Economics of Water Use in Semi-Arid Environment: Darfur Case Study Emerging Markets
Economics, Environmental and Social Aspects Journal, Vol. 2, No. 24, March 15, 2011 Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract Environmental,
climatic and economic human influences contribute to the problem of water scarcity in
arid and semi-arid areas of the world, particularly in the less developed countries. This
has impeded economic development in these regions. Thus, the call is for better
methodological approaches for investigating the problem from an interdisciplinary
perspective and at a local scale, i.e., the bottom-up approach. This study investigates
the nature of water use in a selected drought-inflicted village and develops an
analytical framework for assessing the water demands of alternative economic development
scenarios. A review of hydro-climatologically characteristics, land use practices, and
technological development provides information on water resources availability and human
activities in the region. Surveys of human activities and water use in the study village,
Kutum indicate the following conditions: water scarcity, unsustainable agricultural
development, and subsequent food and economic insecurity. Further investigations indicate
that groundwater is the most dependable source of water. Its use is dominated by
agricultural activities especially irrigation and animal rearing. These are the most
water intensive activities based on the ratio of water use to income generation. Results
of the study provide useful information for the development of predictive models and
water conservation strategies. Estimates of direct and total requirements of both
economic and ecological commodities showed sparse sectoral interdependence within the
economic system but a heavy dependence of the economy on the environment. Such dependence
is more on water, a scarce commodity in this semi-arid environment. The most intensive
users of water based on the direct effects include animal husbandry, building and
irrigated agriculture; based on total effects are catering, building and animal
husbandry, in descending order. Sahel, Sudan, Darfur, Arid, Semi-Arid Zones, Water Use,
Sustainability, Agriculture, Economic Sectors 

23. The Political Economy and the Risks of Institutional Reforms in the River Nile Water
Rights Institutional Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 33, May 27, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The quickly changing environment
of the African countries necessitates reforms in common resources shared by many of
continent's countries. Fresh water is one of the most important economic issues in
the third millennia. The legendary and romantic River Nile's water is one of those
issues. The current paper discusses some of those issues and concludes that collective
work and actions are direly required by the River Nile riparian countries. Water Rights,
Reforms, River Nile, Riparian Countries 

24. Appraisal of System Dynamics and Utility in the Economic Analysis Macroeconomics
Aggregative Models Journal, Vol. 4, No. 41, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University
- Department of Economics Abstract In the real world, the theory of economic faces many
obstacles in its analyses and interpretations. One of these problems is overlapping
relationships between specific variables and difficulty of determining perfect
formulation which contain all possible effect. Traditional statistics tools like
regression models try to solve this problem in general case, but it's not enough to
give us more information about structure of the system. The interaction between
variables, feedback information, state of the system and variables behavior through time
and effect of exogenous variables. One of the most important modern method depend on
stock and flow diagram, causal loop diagram ,and simulation programming, is Dynamics
models. dynamics model help us to determine the behavior of the accumulation variables
through the time (Population, Cultivable Area, Cultivated Area, Expectation of Oil
Reserve, Reserve of LPG, Expectation of Natural Gas Reserve, Total Saving, Emplacement,
Capital and DEBT) these make many scenarios to solve the problems now and in the future.
Economic Analysis, Dynamic Systems, Models, Variables 

25. Cloning Totalitarianism and Surviving Political Change in Sudan Comparative Political
Economy Journal, Vol. 5, No. 57, April 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics Abstract Anomalies in totalitarian systems around the world call
for analyses and conclusions to rectify or eliminate them. However, in this paper I do
not postulate or conclude that totalitarianism was abruptly born out of the blue. The
basic theory introduced here is that totalitarianism was born with elite educated class
since independence and that totalitarianism was professed by them to be picked by the
military institution. The elite class was racially concentrated and so independence the
seeds of segregation that hatched many years later. The phenomenon was repeated once and
twice. In contemporary situation, election were rigged which worsened the political
situation. Protective mechanisms are required for future transformation to democracy and
its possible sustainable endurance. Cloning Totalitarianism, Elite, Disparities, Military
Institution 

26. Political Empowerment, Corruption and the Nation Crisis Political Institutions,
Bureaucracies and Public Administration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 38, March 16, 2011 Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The present paper
is part of unpublished book divided into three interrelated manuscripts that analyze the
collapse of the Sudan. Previous military regime of Nimeiri metamorphosed from pure
military coup de etat to puritanical Islamism and improvised the religious ultimate
leadership by calling for Bayaa (oath of allegiance) to the Imam (himself). Subsequent
coup de etat carried out by NIF (National Islamic Front) that metamorphosed to NCP
(National Congress Party) improvised the empowerment system. The latter system
legitimized empowerment through creating totalitarian elite, economic manipulation and
dogmatic infusion. Suppression was contemporarily inevitable but prolonged bleeding of
the economy created revulsion and eventual resistance. Empowerment legalized corruption
that triggered a process for the disintegration of the tyrannical regime and national
disintegration. A de facto national division generated vacuum of institutional
interregnum that catalyzed the failure of the state. Political Empowerment, Elitism,
Economic Greed, Corruption, Nation Crisis 

27. On Poverty, Employment, Food Security and Political Impacts in Sudan Poverty, Income
Distribution and Income Assistance Journal, Vol. 3, No. 7, April 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Kamal M. Osman Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics Abstract The study aims at analyzing the problem of poverty with
reference to Sudanese conditions. Advanced solutions focus on financial, direct commodity
provisions and Islamic Zakat. However, in the current vision we focus on the viability of
promoting self-employment, expanding job opportunities in the public and private sectors
in addition to generating income generation by improving development of agricultural and
industrial activities. The society and specialized authorities are vital in extension
work and programs genesis. The role of official programs, are axial for a successful
implementation in addition to directing and helping NGO's in financing such targets.
It is important to survey the relevance in devising a poverty-reduction strategy.
Government and public actions should play in creating employment. That means that
failures in labor markets and exploitive institutional arrangements may require the
attention of public policy in support of the poor. There is also the risk of public
institutional and organizational failure, especially in cases where governance problems
and weaknesses in the legal system loom large, they undermine the country’s potential for
economic development and reduce the scope for employment programs. Thus, poverty can be
born out of political failures that result in negligence and social interregnum. Poverty,
Institutional Arrangements, Employment, Social Interregnum 

28. Effects of Direct Foreign Capital on Economic Performance of Developing Countries:
Case Study of Sudan (2000-2009) | Hide Abstract | Download | International Finance
Journal, Vol. 3, No. 71, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of
Economics Abstract The performance of the Sudanese economy is an enigma of continuous
failures even with all the potentials of country's resources. The current paper
present impacts of direct foreign capital inflows to the Sudanese economy. It is observed
that there were ample expansions after oil discovery and extraction in the country.
However, signs are that such inflows slowed down after the global economic crisis. There
also general failure of the Sudan Central Bank in controlling money supply and foreign
currency exchange rates. That is probably due to multiple and unapplied policies or
indecisive trends of floating foreign currency exchange rates or controlling them. Good
policies were drawn but big questions are raised if they were really implemented. Strong
signals are shown that directed foreign capital inflows did not find a welcoming grounds,
so they were focused on oil industry or land acquisitions for quick profits of
speculations. Sudan, Foreign Direct Investment, Structural Adjustment, Strategies 

29. Partnership Patterns and Trade Between Arab Countries International Trade Journal,
Vol. 3, No. 69, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract There were always presumptions that economic integration and partnerships are
strongly feasible between Arab and within Middle East countries. However, that was not
apparent in real economic and social life. Our theoretical grounds here is that the
potential framework for building such relationships, e.g., trade partnerships and
agreements are generated by the developing global transformations and inevitable
necessities. Establishing such partnerships can be feasible by applying the general
outlines of successful experiences that can be applied in the Middle East. Arab
Countries, Middle East, Economic Integration, Partnerships 

30. Dynamic Model for the Maximization of Dams Hydroelectric Power Generation
Econometrics, Mathematical Methods and Programming Journal, Vol. 4, No. 15, February 16,
2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Alrayah Mohammed
Ishag Abstract Water reservoirs are large pools of water created stream or river
catchment's areas and torrential rains and for storing water for use in many ways,
and perhaps electric power generation is one of the most important uses of these
reservoirs and for agriculture. That is extremely beneficial considering a rare and
limited economic resources. Applied stochastic processes model has been applied in the
work of Roseires dam, in order to develop a system to generate the highest possible power
in the resources available. The current paper aims to apply another model, which is a
dynamic programming model to verify the possibility of developing the same system and
thus generate the highest possible electricity from the reservoir. Electricity
Generation, Dynamic Model, Maximization 

31. The Impacts of the Social Infrastructure on the Sudanese Civil Society Institutions:
Case Study of Khartoum Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Mohamed A. Osman Al-Neelain University Abstract Contemporary Sudanese society endures
many hardships which are manifested in economic retraction, inflation, recession and
stagflation. However, social conflicts are also manifested in simple man's daily
complaints to open rebellions. Most academicians agree on one point, that the society
endures abnormal conditions. The current paper aims delves into a historical context of
civil society as a concept in general which originated in the west. Next it displays
differences between it and the Sudan supposing that there is unique experience
appropriate to the Sudanese state of affairs. Therefore that possibility of creating an
appropriate term that fully describes the social structures as well as settling the
dispute resulting from the use of the term civil society. The study adopts the analytical
historical comparative approach to reach its goal to describe the colonial period and the
creation of Sudanese elite that affected the genesis of totalitarianism and subsequent
civil disturbances. The study concluded that, the use of the term civil society in its
western context has led to cognitive and methodological defect which has not been given
the chance and time to mature in the country because of a series of coup de etat and
totalitarian regimes. Sudan, Social Structure, Endurance, Civil Society, Civic
Institutions, Elitism, Rebellions, Conflicts 

32. Sovereignty and Politics, Hegemony and Survival Political Institutions,
Non-Democratic Regimes Journal, Vol. 4, Issue 27, June 21, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract Since the beginning of the year
2011, the political crisis of Sudan has expanded everyday. The inevitable secession of
Southern Sudan amplifies with the chronic crisis of Abyei pocket between the north and
the south. However, most analysts vocalize their astonishment at irrational official
behavior as the de facto state of war that currently prevails in the country and call it
pure stupidity. In this paper we analyze what is behind the regime structure and the
conception of the Hakimya that makes their regime fortified from accepting rationality,
resilience and sense of truth to respond for solutions and help of the international
society . Political Crisis, Hakimya, Totalitarianism, Resilience, International Society 

33. Strategies of Conflict Resolution: Causes of War and Seeds of Peace in Abyei of
Southern Kordofan Institutions and Transition Economics, Political Economy Journal, Vol.
3, No. 42, May 30, 2011 Accepted Paper Series Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics Abstract There are many intrinsic problems in the framework of
the history of Sudan. Abeyi, is the most complicated and hard to resolve. The variability
of income generating methods in the area was minimum, except for the claimed tribal and
racial. Part of the theoretical framework of the thesis was that long coexistence between
the tribal component, shared resources and kin-relationships could be important with the
framework of conflict resolution. The recent economic background added to the conflict on
resources which evolved from range and pasture strife to struggle to contain existing
massive oil reserves. That enhanced central and southern Sudan governments to stands as
parts of the confrontation. The introduced framework of Conflict Resolution comes as a
fundamental pillar in political economic analysis. The present work analyzes the impasse
of Abeyi that caste its shadow on the future of the Sudan as a nation. The main variables
discussed in this thesis involve the historical backgrounds of the area, the tribal
interrelationships and the civil administration of Abeyi. The analysis includes four
digits-square parameters: win-win, win-lose, lose-win and lose-lose solutions. The model
was applied to the Abeyi problem considering economic, social and political variables,
with strong emphasis on the historical background of the area. Demographic effects were
considered in the analysis and the solutions included also secession and joining the
expected southern state, federal, confederal and independence. The results showed that it
is possible to reach win-win solution accordingly. Civic administration stands as a
cardinal variable that could play an imperative role in the solution. Based on confederal
status, it is possible to amalgamate the demographic variance with the help of economic
development. North-South Sudan, Southern Kordofan Region, Abyei, Conflict and Strategies
of Resolution 

34. The Sudanese Agriculture Development, History, Policies and Sustainability
Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics Journal. Vol. 3, No. 82, May 06, 2011 Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The crisis of
Greater Darfur Region of Sudan was amplified by global news media all over the world.
Civil conflict erupted, developed into armed rebellion and open uncontrolled civil war
that enveloped the whole region. Many sources estimated the resultant lost lives at over
300,000 individual while the Sudanese government sources estimated them at 10,000.
Displaced at refugees numbered over 3 millions and there were massive destruction of the
scanty infrastructure in the region. Many reasons for the conflicts were given, however,
most agree on that underdevelopment, lack of governmental plans to improve life, health,
education and human capital were the true reasons. In the current paper we present some
information on the whole country per se and then discuss some reasons and logics of
previous development structure, deficiencies and mismanagement or ill-conceptions. It is
constructed to deal with the historical background of agricultural development through
the different decades, examine the role of agriculture in the Sudan economy, throw lights
on the farming system and focusing on the role of foreign aids, finance, investment in
the agriculture sector, and specific attention on the policies and sustainability.
Agriculture Development, Sudan, Historical Overview 

35. Nomads of Savannah, the Messeirya Tribe of Sudan and the Abyei Referendum
Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 61, April 2011 Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The Sudanese nation
turmoil continues and does not end with the secession of its Southern part after
January's 2011 referendum. Conflicts on the border region of Abei flares with its
complicated demographic structures. The region is inhabited by a majority population of
Nomadic tribes of Dinka, African Nilotics and Messeirya Baggara of Arab origins. They
shared land, water resources and the common property of living off livestock herding.
Previous conflicts occurred under the flag of the Sudanese nation. The secession
generated the need for both sides to belong either to the Northern or Southern Sudan
which logically both selected his preference. The conflict expanded with the discovery of
oil in the region. Even with the non-existent transparency, predictions of large amounts
of reserves were evident. That gave additional dimensions of greed and struggle for
resources. The conflict flared more when the International Court divided the
region's land between them which allocated the Messeirya nomads of Bahr al Arab
River and thus deprived the Messeirya of accessibility to the livestock. Moreover, the
secession deprived them of accessibility to pastures in the South which supported their
herds and was available for them for the past four hundred years. The intricacy of the
situation reminds us of Cowboys Open Range legacy. Visible solutions do not exist for
even if all Abyei was allocated to them they would still have to look for pasture within
the borders of the newly born Southern Sudan state. A remote solution is suggested that
tribes of the region should be exempted by both Northern and Southern States and granted
free access. The conflict resolution also can include dual nationality. The Abyei
region's oil can be divided between the south and the north Sudan. Moreover, it is
suggested that the region should be granted a state of autonomy. Unless those suggestions
are granted, open war between the two states of the North and South Sudan is eminently
expected which shall be preceded by tribal blood sheds. Southern Sudan Secession,
Messeirya, Dinka, Nomadism, Resources Conflict, Oil Discovery, War 

36. Reviewing Poverty Measurements and Analysis Philosophy and Methodology of Economics,
Vol. 2, No. 28, March 17, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of
Economics Abstract The current paper reviews various measurements and analytical methods
of poverty. Poverty can be construed as a state of necessity in which freedom is absent.
That brings the question of the political, social and economic structure of a nation. The
paper discusses issues of poverty conception, definitions, inequality and good
governance. It is concluded here that improvements of incidence of poverty cannot be
separated from the institutional and political make-up of a country. Poverty
Measurements, Analysis, Institutions 

37. Using GARCH Model in the Analysis of Trade Liberalization and Poverty in Developing
Countries International and Comparative Law. Vol. 6, No. 32, March 14, 2011 Issam A.W.
Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The current paper
reviews impacts of trade liberalization on developing countries and levels of poverty.
The expected impacts of multilateral trade liberalization on wage levels and subsequent
poverty are implored. Empirical Auto-regression models are visualized to develop a
different set of strategies and programs to provide real benefits to the poor with real
benefits. It is concluded that GARCH updating formula takes the weighted average of the
unconditional variance, the squared residual for the first observation and the starting
variance and estimates the variance of the second observation. This input into the
forecast of the third variance and so forth. Eventually, an entire time series of
variance forecasts is constructed. Ideally, this series is large when the residuals are
large and small when they are small. The likelihood function provides a systematic way to
adjust the parameters to give the best fit. It is possible that the true variance process
can differ from the one specified by econometricians. In order to detect this, a variety
of diagnostic tests are available. Various tests such as tests for autocorrelation in the
squares are able to detect model failures. Trade Liberalization, Poverty, GARCH Model 

38. Impacts of Southern Sudan Secession on the Hawazma Nomads of Southern Kordofan
National, State, Local Government and Intergovernmental Relations Journal, Vol. 4, No.
64, May 16, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract Tribal interactions between groups of Southern Kordofan and the Southern
provinces of Bahr al Ghazal and Upper Nile are wide and old. The old coexistence habits
that previously dominated a one country structure were torn down by a de facto status
secession by the Southern region of Sudan. The South Kordofan represents a region where
tribal groups live in. Now it represents a region of future candidate for war. The
decision of secession of Southern Sudan for independence involved delayed drawing borders
and arguments of conflicts on specific regions bordering the two parts of Sudan. In South
Kordofan many tribes lived side by side. Currently, with the weakening and declination of
the Central Government of Khartoum authority many calls are heard for new arrangement
containing every tribe's border. The Arab Hawazma, Nuba mountains' and the
Dinka Ngok are among those tribes where the expected conflict flare would ignite. Armed
clashes resulted in population migration and displacements in addition to casualties from
both sides. That resulted in disorder in the economic life and production modes of all
the inhabitants. Conflict Resolution, Southern Kordofan, South Sudan, Tribal Structures,
Hawazma, Dinka Ngok 

39. Empowerment and the State Crisis in Sudan Law, Institutions and Development Journal,
April 4, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract
Empowerment in democracies is presumed to be for and of the people. Food security,
freedom to speak and write, jobs generation, adequate health services, etc. However,
under totalitarian regimes it seems to be solely directed towards selective regime's
cadres, piling state resources, corruption and heavy handed rule. Sudan has endured long
years of austerity and economic crisis, during short democracies and long-termed
dictatorships. The discovery of oil in the country was a golden chance that was missed to
substantiate social and state cohesion. The current regime has declared the principles of
empowerment, but the motto was central to specific echelons. The pristine religious flag
was raised, not for an application, but as a totalitarian tool. Constitutional rights,
institutional structures and humanitarian basics were ignored. Transparency in resources
management and public administration was totally absent. Subsequent institutional
interregnum was evident and the result was unprecedented legalized corruption that
engulfed the whole state and became the seed of demise. The regime seems to have lost the
momentum with the undeclared negative resistance and hidden anger. The Southern region
referendum result was an overwhelming ballot of selecting secession. The strong winds of
civil conflict threatens the country's structure because of the collapse of its
superstructure and loss of credibility and demise looms with the weak economic productive
base the impacts fall on income. Empowerment, State, Superstructure, Politics, Demise 

40. Analysis of the Educational Statistics of the Sudanese Secondary Certificate | Hide
Abstract | Download | Labor and Human Capital, March 30, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract In the past two decades many
voices were raised calling for corrections, restructuring and improvements of the
Sudanese educational system. Complaints focused on the weakness of university students.
However, their weaknesses were traced back to the elementary, secondary and high
secondary educational phases. Economic restrains, lack of facilities and meager numbers
of qualified instructors were pointed out as the prime causes. However, in this paper
were hypothesize that besides those reasons basic impediments were entrenched in the
whole educational system. The metamorphosis the Sudanese educational system has foreseen
in the early 1970s and 1990s have distorted students knowledge base. Changing the system
into purely Arabic based and partially abolishing English language weakened a well-known
and strong system Sudan has known for generations. The current paper analyzes those
effects and review some parameters to contain them. It is concluded here that
interventions by lowering the students' pass mark rates have affected their
knowledge and education capabilities. It is giving them false sense of passing from an
educational phase to another. However, the result is worse knowledge transferred into
another educational phase and then to the university. The result is like Zeno or Achilles
paradox and a worse graduate education. Education, Secondary Schools, Rates, Achievements 

41. Economics of Water Use for Commodity Production in Scarcity Arid Regions: Kutum,
Darfur Development Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 49, March 10, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract This paper investigates water
use in a rural village in semi-arid of Darfur region. Water use is viewed from the
perspective of four production sectors: agriculture, rural industry, trade and services
as well as domestic requirements: drinking, cooking and sanitary uses. Water for these
uses may be from three sources: rain, surface and underground water. Surveys indicate
that groundwater use is dominated by agricultural activities including irrigated
vegetables and grains, tree crops, and animal rearing. A ratio of water use to income
generated is used as a measure of water intensity compared across activities and
commodities. Agricultural commodities, irrigated vegetables, grains and trees, are the
most water intensive. The results provide useful background information for the
development of predictive models and water conservation strategies. It presents an
analysis of water use in a drought-inflicted of Darfur as preliminary findings of a
research project whose objective is to assess the implications of alternative rural
development scenarios for water use and water scarcity. Water Use, Commodity Production,
Darfur, Sustainability 

42. Empowerment, Corruption, Hoarding, Economic Chaos and Political Demise in Sudan
Institutions and Transition Economics Political Economy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 51, June 27,
2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Mohamed A. Osman
Al-Neelain University Abstract In a country on the eve of losing one third of its land,
80% of potential natural resources and 75% of external exports value, Sudan's
economic future seems gloomy. Many opinions were given for economic solutions after the
Southern Sudan secession. However, that does not support a theoretical framework that
those are the only reasons for the expected economic collapse. Our theory here is that
such collapse already happened because of economic mismanagement, corruption and hoarding
initiated by the calls for empowerment and carried out by the regime's members. Such
acts extended to the banks, economic institutions and randomized privatization. The
symptoms of collapse and results were long ago brewing but strongly manifested after the
global economic crisis. The crescendo escalated with political crisis. The paper
concludes that it is essential and inevitable for any economic rectifications to
restructure the governmental buildup and call for technocratic executives to carry out
amendments. Unless that is done, it is expected that economic full collapse shall rein
the country after July 2011, the date of the Southern Sudan secession. 

43. Political Mess, Lost Chances and Dark Future Political Institutions and
Non-Democratic Regimes Journal, Vol. 4, No. 22, May 18, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The present paper advances a
theory that totalitarian regimes eventually acquire self-destructive urge that resembles
suicide. Gradually, under the present international conceptions, masses pressures, the
United Nations Referendums and applications of the rules and laws of human rights, such
regimes are isolated. In an economically integrated world it becomes increasingly to live
in a closed economy paradigm. That increase difficult economic and social for their
people. Such situations generate a process of suffering and dissatisfaction's. It is
more feasible that in such situation an internal disintegration process may start with
disastrous human impacts. Totalitarian Regimes, Self Destruction, Integration, Human
Rights, Impacts 

44. Surveying HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Khartoum State with Reference to Economic Impacts
Health Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 43, April 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics Abstract The paper reviews incidence of HIV/AIDS on
international levels and then in Khartoum state during the period (2003-2007). The main
objective was to study the situation of HIV/AIDS state through a sample of 1439 of
volunteers for the three selected blood testing and counseling centers in Khartoum,
Omdurman and Khartoum North teaching hospitals. The data of the study were collected from
secondary source namely the registered information about volunteers after testing blood
for HIV. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, chi-square test for
dependency between demographic variables and HIV/AIDS incidence, and logistic regression
model to discover the effect of predictors variables on the dependent HIV/AIDS incidence.
The infected percent is found to be very high in Khartoum center (36.0), 33.5 for
Omdurman center. The incidence rate of HIV/AIDS was found to 14.3 for Khartoum North
center. The logistic regression model results have concluded social status, Occupation,
and education level affect the HIV/AIDS incidence Khartoum state. The trends of the
disease during 2007 have indicated that, the pandemic is at increasing rate for both
sexes males and females positive although the positive cases for males were greater than
females positive cases, except in one or two months. The study recommended that there
must be assessment for the current situation of the HIV/AIDS so as to construct strategic
plan to stop or eradicate the spread among the people mainly adults. The focus is on the
HIV/AIDS in Khartoum state during the period (2003-2007). Its main objective was to study
the situation of HIV/AIDS through a sample of volunteers for the selected blood testing
and counseling centers in Khartoum, Omdurman, and Khartoum North teaching hospitals. The
data of the study were collected from secondary source namely the registered information
about volunteers after testing blood for HIV checking Data were analyzed by using
descriptive statistics, chi-square test for dependency between demographic variables and
HIV/AIDS incidence, and logistic regression model to discover the effect of predictors
variables on the dependent HIV/AIDS incidence. The infected percent is found to be very
high in Khartoum center (36.0), 33.5 for Omdurman center. The incidence rate of HIV/AIDS
was found to 14.3 for Khartoum North center. The trends of the disease during 2007 have
indicated that, the pandemic is at increasing rate for both sexes males and females
positive although the positive cases for males were greater than females positive cases,
except in one or two months. The study recommended that there must be assessments for the
situation of the HIV/AIDS so as to construct strategic plan to stop or eradicate the
spread among the people mainly adults. AIDS/HIV, Africa, Sub Sahara, Sudan, Khartoum,
Socioeconomic Impacts, Political Crisis 

45. Coup De Etat, Fraud, Counterfeited Elections and the Art of Tearing a Nation Public
Choice, Analysis of Collective Decision-Making Journal, Vol. 4, No. 85, May 05, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The current
political situation in Sudan has deteriorated with the secession of its Southern part,
the Darfur dilemma and the growing public feelings of deprivation, political disparities,
elitism that possess the whole country. However, evidence proves that the situation is an
accumulation of six decades that passed after the so-called political independence of
Sudan. The Sudanese political class had chances that were wasted and signs are that the
international society will not allow more of such political chaos, lost opportunities and
costs of supporting a nation that was dependant on currently unaffordable handouts. Sudan
saw prolonged problems, two civil wars in the South between 1955-1971 and 1984-2005 that
killed four million lives and massive economic cost. It became the top country in its
internally displaced people. The theory presented here is that Sudan did not form a state
during this period (1956-2011). The last state it during modern times saw was during the
Christian epoch. However, we point out that such opinion is incomplete because the modern
state appeared with the Mahdists of 1884-1899 even with their primitive rule. The
feelings of being a nation state were solidified with the British occupation which did
not diminish even with the withdrawal of the Egyptians army in 1924. Such feelings were
increased with the declaration of independence from within the parliament in 1956.
However, it started diminishing with the inception of a series of coup de etat and the
military grasping power with short intervals of pretentious democracies. That process per
se has frozen the evolution of the Sudanese state then halted it which led to its
decaying and death. Eliminations of the basics of the infrastructure and superstructures
of the nation, e.g., resulting in institutional chaos, diffusing corruption, destroying
constitutional structures, decomposition of the intellectual activities through
suffocation and degrading the social movements of their components. Thus, the nation was
deprived its legacies which can form a nation. Under military totalitarianism such
process continued where governments were cloned without forming roots and basis for a
real state in Sudan. That prepared the grounds for strong possibilities of the
disintegration and secession of other parts of the country. (And I looked, and behold a
pale horse: and his name that sat upon him was Death and Hell followed with him. And
power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with
hunger, and with the beasts of the earth. The Holy Bible. The Book of Revelation: Chapter
6, Verse 8.) Coup de Etat, Military Regimes, Elitism, Constitutional Corruption,
Institutional Demise, Disintegration 

46. Oil Explorations and Socioeconomic Impacts of Production in Sudan Energy Law and
Policy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 15, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics Abstract The current paper reviews issues of oil exploration,
extraction and production in Sudan. It is presumed that the oil curse has doomed the
country's cohesion as a state and accelerated its foreseen fragmentation. The
referendum on secession of Southern Sudan is phase one. Other regions complaints of
underdevelopment, negligence of the central government are high. Gradually, they turned
into reasoning from federation to secession solutions. The analysis conducted in this
paper detail facts of disposing with oil revenues during the past years. Very little
amounts were diverted towards, health services, education, employment and job generation.
The conflicts on wealth distributions were evident in the political arena. Moreover, the
Sudanese economy saw downward trends throughout the past years. Inflation rates escalated
and impacts on the global financial crisis were reflected in deep stagflation. There were
noticeable deterioration in the other economic sectors. The country's small
industrial sector became dead. The agricultural sector was unable even to provide enough
food for the country's population. Unemployment rates escalated and there were huge
deficits in the balance of payments. The performance of the Sudanese economy, en total,
suffered a strong wave of hyperinflation. However, the present economic status of the
country cannot be described as suffering from the Dutch disease or Nigerian syndrome. It
is apparently a case of mismanagement and ill-allocation of oil resources gained through
the past ten years. Oil, Unemployment, Social Injustice, Secession, Poverty 

47. Analysis of the Impacts of Money Supply on Income and Prices in the Sudan Issam A.W.
Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The current paper
reviews impacts of money supply on income in of Sudan. In 1990 a package of policies was
implemented to solve the shortage of foreign exchange problem. Free market economy was
adopted through liberalizing trade and exerting efforts to promote and boost exports,
besides adopting encouraging policies for the benefit of increasing productivity.
Whenever exchange rate is determined by the market forces with weak economic productive
base the impacts fall on income. Implementing floating exchange rates were implemented to
increase exports. Commercial banks were encouraged to extend finance to the export
sectors, which was considered as a priority sector in all government policies. Trade
started to flourish and bilateral agreements between Sudan and other countries started to
thrive. With these radical changes the Bank of Sudan issued the circular in which the
free and the official markets were abandoned and the exchange rate determined through a
committee affiliated to the Sudan's banking association. Dealing in foreign exchange
was allowed through the official channels. Restrictions on the flow of foreign currencies
were abolished and opening free accounts was allowed. This unified free market-rate that
dominated all dealings. Policies aimed at filling the gap in the trade balance through
encouraging exports and restricting imports. The latter objective, reducing imports, was
pursued through banning the importations of ten commodities. That reflected on the real
exchange rate, the experiment of the paralleled exchange rate policy contributed in
accelerating the economy growth of country. However, authorities canceled the official
and the commercial bank exchange rate and reintroduced a unified official regime under
which the rate of exchange was freely determined in the interbank market by the
independent actions of the commercial banks. That had impacts on market exchange rates
for foreign currencies and a set back to income per capita. Official foreign exchange
requirements were met through the compulsory sale to the Bank of Sudan by the commercial
banks of 50% of proceeds at the commercial banks selling rate. The imports policy
remained unchanged, where all imports were allowed except wine and strong drinks. The
result was an environment of economic uncertainty that leads to gradual downfall of the
productive activity. Macroeconomics, Money Supply, Sudan, Inflation, Income, Exchange
Rates 

48. The Effects of Trade Liberalization and Partnerships on the Sudanese Economy:
Analysis of COMESA International Trade Journal, Vol. 3, No. 50, March 14, 2011 Issam A.W.
Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The current paper
reviews impacts of trade liberalization on developing countries and levels of poverty.
The expected impacts of multilateral trade liberalization on wage levels and subsequent
poverty are implored. Empirical Auto-regression models are visualized to develop a
different set of strategies and programs to provide real benefits to the poor with real
benefits. It is concluded that GARCH updating formula takes the weighted average of the
unconditional variance, the squared residual for the first observation and the starting
variance and estimates the variance of the second observation. This input into the
forecast of the third variance and so forth. Eventually, an entire time series of
variance forecasts is constructed. Ideally, this series is large when the residuals are
large and small when they are small. The likelihood function provides a systematic way to
adjust the parameters to give the best fit. It is possible that the true variance process
can differ from the one specified by econometricians. In order to detect this, a variety
of diagnostic tests are available. Various tests such as tests for autocorrelation in the
squares are able to detect model failures. It is concluded here that there are negative
impacts of trade liberalization and agreements such as COMESSA on the Sudanese economy.
Trade Liberalization, COMESA, Poverty, Economic Impacts 

49. Applying System Dynamics Model for Macroeconomic Analysis of Yemen Econometrics,
Mathematical Methods and Programming Journal, Vol. 4, No. 38, May 19, 2011 Issam A.W.
Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The purpose of the
System Dynamics method is to study the relationship between structure and behavior in
non-linear, dynamic systems. In such systems, the significance of various structural
components to the behavior pattern exhibited, changes as the behavior unfolds. Changes in
structural significance modify that behavior pattern which, in turn, feeds back to change
the relative significance of structural components. We develop a macroeconomic model
through which we can study the characteristics of the feedback between structure and
behavior. This model is based on multiplier-accelerator model, and inventory – adjustment
model. This work is an extension of the work by Nathan Forrester on the use of basic
macroeconomic theory to stabilize policy analysis. The design of a System Dynamics model
begins with a problem and a time frame that contribute to the problem. They are listed
and their structural relationships sketched the factors with particular attention to
characterizing them as levels (or stocks) and rates (or flows) that feed or drain them.
Levels and rates must alternate in the model; no level can control another without an
intervening rate or any rate influence another without an intervening level.
Macroeconomic Analysis, System Dynamics, Yemen, Monetary Supply, Economic Models 

51. An Analysis of Behavioral Growth Rates in Iraq Pre-Second Gulf War Political Analysis
Quantitative Methods Journal, Vol. 5, No. 7, February 14, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The present quantitatively paper
analyzes the behavioral growth rates in Iraq pre-second Gulf war. Changes in the
technical capacity building and absorption were dynamically developing in high rates.
Data were utilized from available resources, though more recent quantitative work is not
available because of the war following impacts. Comparisons are unavailable but the
results show that it was possible to gain advantages with what may be called industrial
progress at that time. Growth, Iraq, Pre-war 

52. Land Dispute, Property Hoarding and Social Uprising in Sudan Property, Citizenship
and Social Entrepreneurism Journal, Vol. 8, No. 21, June 23, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Mohamed A. Osman Al-Neelain University
Abstract Under the present civil Sudanese conditions, the country endures many hardships
which are manifested in economic retraction, inflation, recession and stagflation.
However, those are not the sole reasons for the sporadic conflicts that infest the
people. Illegitimate property and economic hoardings seem to be inflaming the Sudanese
societies. Social conflicts are manifested in simple man's daily complaints to open
rebellions. Most academicians agree on one point, that the society endures abnormal
conditions. The current paper delves into land disputes in the South Kordofan region and
displays there anomalies affecting the Sudanese state of affairs. The economic and social
structures are affecting the civil society which is drained of the basic available
capital and livelihood, land. The study concluded that it is necessary to promote new
ways of protecting land rights. If not more civil mutinies will erupt. Sudan, Kordofan,
Land Rights, Disputes, Civic Administration 

53. Cowboy and Bandits, International Society and National Disintegration International,
Transnational and Comparative Criminal Law Journal, Vol. 5, Issue 31, June 29, 2011 Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The political
crisis of Sudan is amplified everyday with the expansion of civil conflict from Darfur to
Southern Kordofan state. The inevitable secession of Southern Sudan is threatened by the
chronic crisis of Abyei pocket between the north and the south that saw open war between
the two opponents; the Sudanese army and Popular Liberation of Sudan. Nevertheless, the
Attorney General of the International Criminal Court, Ocambo vocalizes more concerns of
humanitarian sufferings and war crimes that he claims to be continuing despite of
peaceful negotiations. Such situation seems irrational with the de facto state of war
that currently prevails in the country. Secession, War, ICC, Civil Crisis 

54. Human Rights Violations, Missing Justice, Civil Conflicts and Darfur Political Future
Transitional Justice Journal. Vol. 2, Issue 18, June 10, 2011 Series Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract This paper resets some facts
about Darfur civil conflict. It is a brief statement of facts integrated with what I
describe here as the missing justice. Violations of human rights are undeniable, but
channels of achieving justice are absent. It is my conclusion here that the escalation of
civil conflicts in Darfur, from armed gangs to rebel groups and then to open civil wars,
were instigated by concrete evidence of human rights violations, atrocities and
genocides. But most of all it was instigated by the inability of the concerned
authorities to carry out justice which was lost in the maze of deception, lies, ignorance
and fear of application. The paper predicts that this will eventually lead to the
separation of the Darfur region, probably along with most of Western Sudan. The created
new state will be a hostile country with the remaining Sudan. Darfur, human rights
violations, civil complaints, missing justice, separation 

55. Notes on Across-Border Resources and Livelihood of the White Nile's Tribes
Region after Secession of Southern Sudan Conflict Studies Journal, Vol. 5, No. 56, June
02, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract
Secession of Southern Sudan is a de facto situation which has to be dealt with wisdom to
avoid future clashed that may escalate. Additionally, the mutual use of resources is
inevitable for both sides. The tribal structure in both South and North necessitate
establishing new code of dealing with the new situation. However, it should be based on
the Tribal Civil Administration (TCA) which has better communication and accessibility
with the people of both sides. The new secession should not bar people from both sides to
live, work or rear their livestock in traditional old ways. Thus, it is necessary to
strengthen the TCA role in the public relations and diplomacy. Building up and completing
previously started governmental infrastructure, e.g., roads, schools, clinics should
re-commence. Such measures can strengthen relationships and minimize probabilities of
conflicts and future civil war. Southern Sudan, Secession, White Nile, Tribal Civil
Administration, Infrastructure 

56. Theories of International Trade and Impacts of Hegemony International Trade Journal,
Vol. 3, No. 95, May 18, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of
Economics Mohamed A. Osman Al-Neelain University Abstract This paper examines a variety
of approaches to issues of globalization and international trade. It was implicated by
early researchers and academicians that there are basic rules for international trade and
labor division that should be investigated in order to maximize global trade. Within
those bases, even though there were theoretical differences there is axial rule, that
fair and equality should be cared for. A trickle down mechanism is fundamental to
ameliorate internal and external trade capacities between advanced and developing
economies. Trade Theories, Globalization, International Labor Division, Trickle Down 

57. Impacts of the Political Regime on the High Education System of Sudan Public
Economics Journal, Vol. 6, No. 21, May 9, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics Abstract In totalitarian systems, especially that of dogmatic
nature, education is often targeted to be devoted for the preparations of young
generations and dedicating them to the regimes' structure and principles. However,
such method negatively influences the educational system and renders the efficient inputs
to students. The results can be manifested in deteriorations of knowledge, human capital
development and the future performance per se. Totalitarianism, Education, Human Capital 

58. Racism and the State, Discrimination and Disintegration Political Behavior, Race,
Ethnicity and Identity Politics Journal, Vol. 5, 55, May, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract Totalitarianism integrates with
power monopoly, in all cases. However, when it is born out of hybrid of the military
institution and a dogmatic elite, it turns more into a stratocracy. Within that frame,
the state and the military are the same and the governmental positions are occupied by
military leaders helped by the elite's bureaucracy. The definition implies that
stratocracy is a government headed by military chiefs. It is not similar to a military
dictatorship where the military's political power is not enforced or even supported
by other laws. Its political power is supposed to be supported by law and the society. It
does not have to be autocratic by nature in order to preserve its right to rule. In
military dictatorship political power resides with the military. Non-similar to
stratocracy, is a state ruled directly by the military dictatorships as a result of a
coup d'état. They may be official or unofficial and may not qualify as stratocratic.
Military dictatorships contrast with communist States where the center of power rests
among civilian party officials. Dictatorship is government that has the power to govern
without consent of those being governed. Dictatorship is a contrast to democracy as a
government that has the power to govern without consent of those being governed. However,
even though stratocracy is expected to be born out of a refined military stature, the
current situation in Sudan implicates that it is more related to racial selectivity and
dogmatic system that branded the military institution with unreliability in its function
as the guardian of the regime rather than being the protector of the nation. Stratocrcy,
Totalitarianism, Dictatorship, Racism, Disintegration 

59. Roots of Conflict, Arabs, Muslim and Historical Resources Conflicts Conflict Studies
Journal, Vol. 5, No. 54, May 31, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics Mohamed A. Osman Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract The yesterday's news of death Al Quaeda leader Ben Laden was shocking to
many in the Islamic and Arab societies and brought joy to others in the Western world.
However, instead of referring to the conflict as religious, dogmatic or cultural, we want
to reproduce some other historic literature that has taken resources, disputes and
economic as the base for the strive that has damaged the world's economic and social
structure. We emphasize that the roots were entrenched long time ago and were dug deep by
both dogmatic views, Islamic and Christian. Internationalization of trade and
globalization between unequal parts triggered more fear within the weaker economies and
generated the terror phenomenon. Conceptual coexistence is needed more that arms to
overcome the past grudges and future sufferings. Conflict, Islamic, Arabs, West,
Resources Disputes 

60. Hegemony, Islamic and Arab Economic Blocks Versus Globalization and International
Trade Agreements National, State and Local Government Intergovernmental Relations
Journal. Vol. 4, No. 59, May 04, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics Mohamed A. Osman Al-Neelain University Abstract This paper
examines the concept of hegemony and its historical application on the Arabic and Islamic
countries. It is foreseen that has long path applied by the Western countries as
disclosed by trade applications and history of economic thought. Impacts on Arabic and
Islamic countries were visible in terms of trade, balances and persistent debts. A strong
tool is evident with the called for integration, interdependence and the generated
dependency syndrome. The establishment of that mechanism depends on a theory which we
present as the Hegemonic Stability. The Arabic and Islamic countries did not succeed to
form their effective economic blocks in order to counter such hegemonic effects because
of their internal political structure which affect the structure of their international
trade and economic benefits. International Trade, Hegemony, Economic Blocks, Dependency
Syndrome, Hegemonic Stability 

61. Short Review of Rural Development in Sudan Development Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No.
84, April 28, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract Current political crisis in Sudan have roots in lags of economic development and
mismanagement. The result is food insecurity degeneration of the country's mainstay,
the agricultural sector and underdevelopment of it secondary sector. The paper review
issues on historical development of the agricultural sector with recent data.
Macroeconomic Policy, Rural Development, Agricultural Schemes, Political Crisis, Poverty 

62. The Economics of Management and Financial Systems in Public Projects in Sudan Journal
of Development Economics, Vol. 3, No. 79, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics Abstract The current paper examines the problems facing public
projects in Sudan in general. The paper discusses the reasons of establishing these
projects and the connection between their performance, the administrative policies, the
systems and laws of public policies. An analysis of field collected data concerning
elements and systems affect the efficiency of public projects. Questions are raised of
why efficient employees leave their positions in the public projects and seek employment
in the private sector. Data analyses suggest that dissatisfaction emanate from management
and administrative ill-practices, hegemony, corrupt authoritative high personnel and
structures, establishment and management codes, low salaries for the lower and middle
management staff and misinterpreted authoritarianism. Recommendations center on the
necessity to improve salaries, improvise new codes and grow the spirit of group work.
Public Projects, Institutions, Mismanagement, Administration, Salaries, Group Spirit 

63. The Structure of the Yemeni Economy (1990-2008) Macroeconomics, National Income and
Product Accounts Journal, Vol. 4, No. 11, April 18, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics Abstract Literature concerning the Yemeni economy is
rarely presented. The current turmoil and calls for changing the regime are delivered
over media and complaints of economic weaknesses, corruption and diminishing per capita
income promote such efforts. In the present paper, I introduce real data about the Yemeni
economy and draw its structure and growth for the years 1990-2008. The general features
reveal that even though with the structural adjustment policies applied to rectify the
Yemeni economy, there were continuous increases in inflation rates throughout the
examined period. Oil revenues did not help to improve the balance of payments neither the
persistent budget deficits. That amplified the chronic external debt crisis. The evident
characteristic of Yemeni economy is the total dependence on oil export with its
fluctuating international prices and the lack of supportive non-oil products. The latter
diminished in their sharing in the gross national production. Thus, the Yemeni economy
was dependable on importing more food which resulted in less consumption purchasing power
for its population that stood to endure global increases in food prices. It is not
surprising that the primary calls for the current demonstrations, calls to change the
government and dethrone the 33 years governing president started with calls for social
and economic benefits and elimination of corruption. More evidence is clear that there
are see pages of resources through governmental ever and accounted for increasing
expenditures. Yemen, Macroeconomics, Expenditure, Oil, Per Capita Income, Deficits 

64. Secession and Tribal Conflicts in Western Sudan Comparative Political Economy
Journal, Vol. 5, No. 58, April 25, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics Abstract The demand for secession of Southern Sudan escalated to
open calls for total independence that involved drawing borders and arguments to
conflicts on specific regions bordering the two parts of Sudan. One of them is the Abyei
region that two tribes demand as their own, the Arab Messeriya and the Dinka Ngok. The
conflict was taken to international courts, solutions were drawn in the presidency
institution of Sudan. Nevertheless, they still continue even with agreements or solution
sponsored by international mediators, United Nations and United States envoys. Armed
clashes resulted in population displacements in addition to victims from both sides.
However, other ethnic groups have historical ownership rights which were recognized by
researchers, the Dago and the Shat. They were marginalized and deprived of land rights
and inhibition on their great fatherlands. The current paper postulates the agreements
and conventions were built on wrong and inhuman assumptions and solutions, which is that
the region is inhabited solely and belongs to the Arab Messeriya and the Dinka Ngok,
whereas the basic human concept is that land is for who inhabit and utilize it. Applying
those short sighted solution is only fueling future and bloodier strive for existence
from the marginalized and deprived anthropogenic groups who may have claims. Conflict
Resolution, Messeriya, Dinka Ngok, Dago, Shat, Abyei, Secession, Sudan, Conflict 

65. An Overview of Economic Patterns of Partnerships Between Developing and Rich
Countries with Special Reference to USA and Sudan International Trade Journal, Vol. 3,
No. 70, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract
The current paper presents unique approach to economic analysis where the theoretical
framework applied here postulates that relationships between rogue countries, such as
Korea, Syria, Iran and Sudan necessarily are potential parts for an economically mutual
and viably profitable partnership. The paper reviews such relationships, especially
between African and European countries like Lume and Kotono. I first present a review of
existing trade and economic partnerships. Next, I discuss economic relationships between
developed and developing countries. It is revealed that in some instances, the predatory
nature of those agreements and partnerships are manifested which atrophy the basic
potentials of the weaker partners to maximize their productive abilities. Hegemonic
patterns are generated and transmuted. The ramifications are clear, that partnerships are
rather ancillary dependence. Long lasting and chronic relationships lead to economic
degenerations and eventual burden on the stronger partner. Subsequent impacts on the
weaker partner nurture totalitarian and authoritarian regimes. Results are revealed by
lower standards of living, less per capita income, poverty, destitute and civil strives.
Equal partnerships are less harmful to developing economies and can produce better
benefits to all parts. Sudan and the United States of America feasible partnership are
visualized. That is instead of the current descriptions of Sudan being rouge and USA
being oppressive. The historical obscure food security situation of Sudan necessitates
long and lasting partnerships with high food producing countries. The newly revealed oil
and minerals necessitates acquiring technological know-how. The dependence on Chinese
technology in oil extraction resulted in contamination of vast range and pasture lands
which threaten the country with another civil war. Sustainable oil extraction methods are
nonexistent and dubiousness engulfs oil, gold and other minerals mining deals. The paper
concludes that such positive partnerships are mutually beneficial especially with
transparent and democratic countries. Moreover, it is expected that it should be a
process leading eventually to transfer intelligent knowledge, modern technology, rectify
resources management, improve administrative abilities and render better incomes to a
developing nation. Additionally, it is expected that such countries will be an inevitable
democratization with transparent and equal partnerships with advanced systems in
developed countries. Economic Relationships, Global Trade, Partnerships, Rogue Countries,
USA, Sudan 

66. Implications of Economic Interactions Between Northern and Southern Tribes of Sudan
Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Vol. 3, No. 46, March 17, 2011 Issam A.W.
Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The present paper
discusses issues of the tribal interactions living on the borders between North and South
Sudan. Foresights are looked for, especially after secession. There are multiple ethnic
relations and mutual resources collectively utilized. Different tribes live on those
resources, in specifics those who depend on a livelihood of herding cattle, camels, sheep
and goats. The conceptions of no-borders, free water resources and open range were
entrenched for hundreds of years. The sudden realization of necessities of new borders
generates revulsion, sense of deprivation and end of traditional life practice.
Additionally, development issues are weak with lack of infrastructure, investments and
governmental services of health, education and the existence of central authorities. The
conclusions focus on the necessity of infusing funds, services and directed development
programs. Moreover, new agreements are required to avoid transforming those societies
into outlaw structures of smuggling arms, nurturing rebel groups or generating other
secessions per se. Microeconomics, Sudan, Secession, Border Tribes, Economic
Interactions, Development 

67. Economic Perspective of Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Technology Transfer and Rural
Water Use in Darfur Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 42,
March 11, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract There are growing increases in Darfur population's water demand in recent
years due to rapid demographic expansions that led to increased consumption per capita
associated with improved standards of living and water-related commodity production,
agriculture and service industries. In addition to this, the problem of water stress
which is attributable to increased per capita demand over fixed levels of supply and its
concomitant land desiccation resulting from activities such as deforestation and
overgrazing. Water scarcity continues in arid and semi-arid areas due to precursory
climatic conditions of aridity and droughts. Together these have led to acute water
scarcity and consequently, a shortfall in the amount of water available for human use.
The current paper discusses issues of economic and sustainable utilization in Kutum area,
Northern Darfur region using field data and economic model. Water Use, Arid Regions,
Sustainability, Economic Perspective, Darfur, Sudan 

68. Human Capital and the Economic Role of Women in Darfur-Sudan SSRN Working Paper
Series Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The
present paper analyzes issues of human capital development in Sudan. Investments are
essentially for the national welfare. The impacts are more pronounced in the rural and
marginalized regions. Conflicts are feasible in societies with less expenditure on
education and henceforth less developed human capital densities. The phenomenon is
amplified in African countries. Thus, education economics are fundamental to insight new
parameters and investments should be diverted from defense and security issues to
education. Accumulated education levels shows to help in the absorption of technology
transference. Sudan has severe and grave symptoms with secession of its Southern part and
the eminence of others to go similar steps. The main factors lie in grievances of
underdevelopment, less services and education negligence with high rates of basic
illiteracy parameters. Empirical analysis shows that as entrenched problem in rural and
marginal regions. The paper focus on trouble ridden Darfur region and study the
relationships between education and labor and job opportunities. It is concluded that
women in Darfur constitute a majority portion of labor in the region. Partly, that is due
to the depletion of man constituent and recruitment in rebel groups. That is in addition
to the ethnic and tribal habits. Investment in education programs helps to improve their
abilities and productivity. That is especially with the increasing demand for the
labor-force and endogenous products. There are possibilities to improve their returns by
increasing productivity. Human Capital, Women Economic Role, Participation, Darfur 

69. The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan SSRN Working Paper
Series Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract Water
pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined
with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In the current paper we introduce its concepts
with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study
of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.
Sudan, Pollution, Economic Development 

70. The Impacts of Imbalanced Development on Migration: Case Study of Khartoum State,
Sudan Urban Economics and Regional Studies Journal, Vol. 4, No. 86, May 26, 2011 Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract Migration is one of
the infamous phenomenon that represent grieve problem in modern world. Our present
analysis is based on the conception that external migration represents an intricate
crisis for developed countries flooded by illegal immigrants. It is correlated with the
socioeconomic internal crisis evolving in developing countries. The case study here is on
the impacts of imbalanced development on Sudan's economy and the resultant internal
migration towards the urban areas specially Khartoum generated a crisis situation. The
capital city of Sudan is not prepared for the floods of internally displaced, economic
refugees' invasion. The proper estimation for the annual demographic increase is
about 10%. The city contains more than 20% of the country's population who have
little chance for job opportunities, housing, medical care or education. The paper
concludes that country's resources should be devoted for rural and regional
development. Otherwise, social diseases may explode with little that can be done to mend.
Imbalanced Development, Civil Conflicts, Migration, Internal Displacement, Urban Crisis,
Social Diseases 

71. Empirical Applications for Survey Data on HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Khartoum State Health
Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 57, May 11, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University
- Department of Economics Abstract The study focuses on the HIV/AIDS in Khartoum state
during the period (2003-2007). The main objectives are to study the situation of HIV/AIDS
in Khartoum state through a sample of 1439 of volunteers for the three selected blood
testing and counseling centers in Khartoum, Omdurman, and Khartoum North teaching
hospitals. The data of the study were collected from secondary source namely the
registered information about volunteers after testing blood for HIV. The data were
analyzed by using descriptive statistics, chi-square test for dependency between
demographic variables and HIV/AIDS incidence, and logistic regression model to discover
the effect of predictors variables on the dependent HIV/AIDS incidence. The infected
percent is found to be very high in Khartoum center (36.0), 33.5 for Omdurman center, and
The incidence rate of HIV/AIDS is found to 14.3 for Khartoum North center. The logistic
regression model results have concluded social status, Occupation, and education level
affect the HIV/AIDS incidence Khartoum state. The trends of the disease during 2007 have
indicated that, the pandemic is at increasing rate for both sexes males and females
positive although the positive cases for males were greater than females positive cases,
except in one or two months. It is recommended that there must be assessment for the
current situation of the HIV/AIDS so as to construct strategic plan to stop or eradicate
the spread among the people mainly adults. The study has focused on the HIV/AIDS in
Khartoum state during the period (2003-2007). Its main objective was to study the
situation of HIV/AIDS in Khartoum state through a sample of 1439 of volunteers for the
three selected blood testing and counseling centers in Khartoum, Omdurman, and Khartoum
North teaching hospitals. The data of the study were collected from secondary source
namely the registered information about volunteers after testing blood for HIV checking.
The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, chi-square test for dependency
between demographic variables and HIV/AIDS incidence, and logistic regression model to
discover the effect of predictors variables on the dependent HIV/AIDS incidence.The
infected percent is found to be very high in Khartoum center (36.0), 33.5 for Omdurman
center, and The incidence rate of HIV/AIDS is found to 14.3 for Khartoum North center.
The logistic regression model results have concluded social status, occupation, and
education level affect the HIV/AIDS incidence Khartoum state. The trends of the disease
during 2007 have indicated that, the pandemic is at increasing rate for both sexes males
and females positive although the positive cases for males were greater than females
positive cases, except in one or two months. The study recommended that, there must be
assessment for the current situation of the HIV/AIDS so as to construct strategic plan to
stop or eradicate the spread among the people mainly adults. HIV/AIDS, Statistical
Models, Khartoum State, Prevalence 

72. Evaluation of Sustainability from Socioeconomic and Political Approach in the
Rosieres Project Study Area of the Blue Nile States Agricultural and Natural Resource
Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 86, May 17, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University
- Department of Economics Abstract Sustainable agriculture is a way of practicing
agriculture to optimize skills and technology to achieve long-term stability in
agricultural farming system and utilization of resource. Farming system is a set of
interrelated elements confining natural resources with the socio-economic and cultural of
the societies. The technology factor plays an important role in assessing the degree of
development and constraints facing the farming system. The package of technology
implemented in the project, and changes took place as result will be discussed from the
beneficiaries' opinions of area cultivated and yields and rates of agricultural
inputs and impacts on sustainability. It is assumed that the project has built its
strategy to improve and develop the traditional rain fed farming in one of the following
ways either by increasing the area cultivated or by increasing the productivity or both.
In this context, it is intended to analyze and discuss the agronomical and agricultural
practices and farming systems in it’s all forms. Sustainability, Agricultural
Development, Sudan, Blue Nile Province, Household, Participation, Socioeconomics 

73. Changing Coins: Economic Conditions, Terrorism, Political Regime and the Utility of
Emergency Status in Stabilizing Staggering Systems Journal of Development Economics, Vol.
3, No. 78, April 20, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of
Economics Abstract The declaration of war on terrorism was an effective tool for the
United States of America in its war against extremist movements in the global sense.
However, it was also an effective tool for some totalitarian regimes around the world to
prolong their existence through causality repression processes. In the case of Sudan, the
invisible conflict between its regime and the United States policies general outlines the
September 11th, 2001 consequent repercussions was manna. It was used to fortify the
weakened regimes situation and push for the Comprehensive Peace Agreement with the
Southern Sudan. However, the inception of civil conflict in Darfur gradually worsened the
situation once again. Economic difficulties increased and collapse of the real economic
sector in the country did not improve even though with oil production and revenues in the
following years. The expansions in Darfur conflict degraded the country of direly needed
economic resources. Social cohesion started to disintegrate with calls of disparities
within the ruling elite. The general situation illustrates institutional and social
interregnum that reflects acute national crisis. Civil Conflict, September 11,
Totalitarianism, Emergency Laws, Persistence 

74. Effects of the Economic and Environmental Factors on the Rural Water Use in Darfur
Region, Sudan Environmental Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 42, March 10, 2011 Issam A.W.
Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The purpose of this
study was to investigate the nature of water use a drought-inflicted region of Darfur.
Economic development in this area is constrained due to the occurrence of intermittent
droughts, desertification and water scarcity. Therefore, we attempted to develop an
analytical framework for assessing alternative economic development scenarios in the
village and to advance policy measures for a sustainable economy without endangering the
environment. The paper introduced the problem of study, outlined the aims and objectives,
and discussed the conceptual framework. The problem was analyzed in context of
sustainable agriculture and economic development, identified broad strategies toward
solving it, and indicated the need for an analytical approach. The case study was the
village of Kutum. Basic data on water use and commodity production were generated. An
analytical model, a product-by-industry economic-ecological model was developed. It is an
environmental extension of the input-output model and useful for determining direct and
total direct and indirect input requirements. Because it does not include human
responses, an indigenous knowledge systems and technology local initiatives is preferred.
The established scenarios were simulated using the model to determine the impacts
associated with each development approach. The findings are expected to be applicable not
only to the village but to the rest of the region. Darfur, Economic Development, Water
Use, Drought, Agricultural Production 

75. Economic and Environmental Effects and Rural Water Use in Darfur Region, Sudan SSRN
Working Paper Series Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of water use a
drought-inflicted region of Darfur. Economic development in Darfur is constrained due to
the occurrence of intermittent droughts, desertification and water scarcity. The aim of
this research therefore, was to develop an analytical framework for assessing alternative
economic development scenarios in the village and to advance policy measures for a
sustainable economy without endangering the environment. The paper introduced the problem
of paper, outlined the aims and objectives, and discussed the conceptual framework. The
problem was analyzed in context of sustainable agriculture and economic development,
identified broad strategies toward solving it, and indicated the need for an analytical
approach. The case paper was the village of Kutum. Base data on water use and commodity
production were generated. An analytical model, a product-by-industry economic-ecological
model was developed. It is an environmental extension of the input-output model and
useful for determining direct and total direct and indirect input requirements. Because
it does not include human responses, an indigenous knowledge systems and technology local
initiatives is preferred. The established scenarios were simulated using the model to
determine the impacts associated with each development approach. The findings are
expected to be applicable not only to the village but to the rest of the region. Sudan,
Darfur, Water Scarcity, Utility, Economic Activities, Analysis 

76. Review of Somalia, Greed, Colonization and Socioeconomic Impacts Emerging Markets
Economics, Environmental and Social Aspects Journal, Vol. 2, No. 55, June 30, 2011 Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract In a country that
lost all feasible authorities for over twenty years, economic future seems gloomy. No
feasible economic solutions are seen. The paper review auspices of the Somalian tragedy
and retort history of its last dictatorship, Siad Barri, the following civil conflict and
the process of the present total war, everyone against everyone. Socioeconomic impacts
are discussed along with the education situation and state human capital there. Somalia,
Colonization, Dictatorship, Civil Conflict and War, Socioeconomic Impacts, Education,
Human Capital 

77. Defining Aspects and Theories of Food Security in Sudan Development Economics
Journal, Vol. 3, No. 113, June 8, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics Abstract Food security is a chronic and intrinsic problem in Sub
Saharan Africa. The present paper introduces some aspects of it with great considerations
to the rich theoretical background presented by some scientists. The problem of food
insecurity in Sudan is discussed with review on the recurrent famine incidents and
aspects of food aid delivered by the international society. Food Production, Insecurity,
Famine, Foreign Aid 

78. Policies Determining Food and Nutrition Information Environment in Sudan Health
Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 66, June 6, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University
- Department of Economics Abstract Government policy logically should shape the
information environment in which consumers make food choices. Government’s most important
information role may be in supporting the production of basic scientific knowledge about
the relationships between diet and health. It also plays a role in education and in
shaping the types of information available to consumers. Among the issues highlighted
here are the importance of incentives in determining the types of products offered for
sale, the key role of scientific uncertainty and the dynamic nature of the diet-health
knowledge in shaping regulatory choices, and finally, the importance of recognizing
consumer heterogeneity in assessing the success of regulatory rules and other government
initiatives. The importance of these propositions emerge with the recent arguments on
quality control and the diffusion of market-tents that gives more implications for
chaotic food markets situations in the municipals. Food Security, Distribution, Market
Incentives 79. Ninety Nine Mountains, Self Determination and the Secession Off Sudan
Political Economy, National, State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations
Journal,. Vol. 4, No. 69, May 24, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics Abstract The present paper briefly introduces the dilemma of the
Nuba nation. They were a median state between the Southern and Northern Sudan. The
current situation of Southern secession made them a border state rife with racial, tribal
and political conflicts. Secession of Southern Sudan is a de facto situation which has to
be dealt with wisdom to avoid future clashed that may escalate. Additionally, the mutual
use of resources is inevitable for both sides. The tribal structure in both South and
North necessitate establishing new code of dealing with the new situation. The Tribal
Civil Administration (TCA) has better communication and accessibility with the people of
both sides. The new secession should not bar people from both sides to live, work or rear
their livestock in traditional old ways. Thus, it is necessary to strengthen the TCA role
in the public relations and diplomacy. Building up and completing previously started
governmental infrastructure, e.g., roads, schools, clinics should re-commence. Such
measures can strengthen relationships and minimize probabilities of conflicts and future
civil war. The available options for the Nuba mountains region as introduced by Southern
secession's Juba and Northern Khartoum governments were that the Nuba state joins
either one of them. However, the long political, racial and resources aggravations
triggered a third choice of separation from both countries and the formation of their own
state. That can be a selective choice that may agree with the racial different formations
of Arabs, Nuba and Fulani tribes that have their own conflicting loyalties and fears of
both the Northern and Southern sides. The paper presents a background to the Nuba
tribes' demographic characteristics and then suggests a framework for future
analytic work. Nuba Mountains, Tribal Structure, Self-Determination, Secession 

80. Reviewing Theories of Labor Economics and Applications in Developing Countries with
Special Reference to Sudan Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of
Economics Abstract Labor wages, employment rates, strategies and policies are completely
ignored if not totally missing in Sub Saharan Africa. That represents a potential reason
for poverty and popular discontent and expressed by rebellions, revolts and civil
uprisings in many countries as we have seen in the past years. Lack of potential policies
and correct management measures are related to ignorance, good-governance or corruption
in those regimes. However, it is important to review theories. The present paper reviews
theories of labor, employment and wages of classic and new class schools. Previous
studies conducted in Sudan, though scarce, are also reviewed to shed some light on the
problems as it represents one of the biggest challenges for policy and decision-makers in
the country. Sub Saharan Africa, Sudan, Employment, Poverty 

81. The Impacts of Foreign Currency Exchange Rates on Savings in Sudan SSRN Working Paper
Series Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The
impacts of fluctuations of exchange rates of foreign hard currencies are well documented
in economics literature. There are measures taken over by countries to absorb their
impacts on income, employment and national economies ability to function and produce.
However, distortions are observed in underdeveloped and developing countries. Sudan is
among those where impacts of fluctuations in exchange rates versus national currencies
are strongly observed and felt on its economy. In the past three decades they represented
the highest effects on real money's value, had macroeconomic impacts, affect the
prices of productive inputs, produced commodities and the economy's performance. The
examination we follow in this paper reveals that they were zero-policies for
stabilization. The bank case study for examining encouragements, promoting saving
policies to support the national economy suggests they were equal to zero-policies. It is
suggested here that macroeconomic restructuring is inevitable to normalize the economic
performance. Otherwise, more crisis face the country, one of them is cardinal and eminent
economic collapse. Sudan, Foreign Currency Exchange rates, Macroeconomic Policy, Savings,
Inflation, Poverty 

82. The Sad Triology: The Crisis of a Nation SSRN Working Paper Series Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract This is part of the first part
of a book I started writing in the year 2008 under the title of Sad Trilogy: The Crisis
of a Nation. In this part it is narrating the Sudan under the Inqaz regime, specially
before and after the Darfur region crisis and civil wars, the rage of the international
society and responses, the impacts of the International Institutions including the ICC
and the hunt for justice. All those qualitative variables had responses inside the
country. Political chaos ensued because of the generated cries for human rights
violations, invisible and visible embargo, growing pressures and internal public
uncertainty. However, the responses of Inqaz regime were not resilient or compromising,
there were violent reactions and denials. The logic behind should be referred to being
cornered and threatened by the indictments of the ICC. Defiant responses and recalls were
vouched and political entrenchment was initiated. Meanwhile, the social nation's
stability was shaken even more with the calls of the international society and feeling of
being cornered and collectively indicted. Economic conditions gradually worsened under
inflation and unemployment with escalated costs and requirements for defense. Sudan,
Crisis, Civil War 

83. Empirical Data Analysis of HIV/AIDS in Sudan with Reference to Khartoum State
Econometrics, Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology Journal, Vol. 4, Issue 45,
June 27, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract
The present paper introduces results of an analysis conducted on data collected from
Khartoum state for the year 2009. It aims to apply statistical models for the HIV/AIDS
data in Khartoum state centers of testing blood and counseling. AIDS is recognized as an
emerging disease only in the early 1980s, AIDS has rapidly established itself throughout
the world, and is likely to endure and persist well into the 21s century. AIDS has
evolved from a mysterious illness to a global pandemic which has infected tens of
millions less than 20 years. The importance of the study is to emphasize that the disease
exists even under the special conditions of the country and its status. The study
constructs three main hypotheses that non-linear models fit the HIV/AIDS data well
especially binary logistic regression. Moreover, it is assumed that demographic variables
affect the HIV/AIDS incidence in Khartoum state. It is also assumed that incidences of
HIV/AIDS are increasing as manifested among volunteers in the three centers Khartoum,
Khartoum North, and Omdurman. The main objective of the paper was to apply statistical
models for HIV/AIDS in Khartoum state so as to obtain a good analysis, beside other sub
objectives. Data were from secondary sources and volunteers centers for blood testing and
counseling inside Omdurman, Khartoum, and Khartoum North teaching hospitals. Also, data
were collected through questionnaires designed to get all the information registered
inside the three centers. The main idea of analysis was to apply and identify statistical
model that related to AIDS by using statistical packages to construct the models depends
on the collected data about HIV/AIDS of Khartoum state. The focus was on binary logistic
regression, because it’s suitable to the data collected from the three centers inside the
three hospitals in Khartoum. Estimated coefficients and statistical tests were conducted
to distinguish between the variables that related to HIV/AIDS incidence and spread
through people in the three cities Khartoum, Khartoum North, and Omdurman. It is
concluded that there is no effect of education level on n HIV/AIDS infection for the data
collected from Omdurman. However, there is dependency between HIV/AIDS incidence and
occupation of volunteers. So the job of individuals affects the HIV/AIDS incidence inside
Omdurman area. Also there is an association between HIV/AIDS incidence and social status
of individuals. High numbers of positive HIV/AIDS in Omdurman center are among married
people. Khartoum State, Omdurman, Khartoum North, Khartoum, HIV/AIDS, Incidence,
Prevalence, Socioeconomic Conditions 84. Brief Introduction of Macroeconomic Structure of
Yemen (1990-2005) Macroeconomics, Monetary and Fiscal Policies Journal, Vol. 4, No. 72,
May 13, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract
In countries where tools of economic control are immature and disabled due to
totalitarian systems, macroeconomic analyses for aggregate quantities and relationships,
such as total consumption, investment, and government expenditures represents a difficult
task. The practice of aggregation distinguishes this field of microeconomics and has
advantages but also creates problems, a brief survey of these problems is required now,
although a deeper appreciation of these must await the critical attitudes that can only
develop with more exposure to entire subject. One difficulty is the complex area known as
the aggregation problem, the classifying of widely varying goods or activities into one
general category, which is treated as a homogeneous variable. The political, social and
military fate of nations depends greatly upon economic success, and no area of economics
is today more vital to nation’s success than its macroeconomic performance. Countries
like Japan which has grown rapidly by wining export markets for its products, enjoy
enhanced political power and higher living standards. A country’s living standards depend
crucially upon its macroeconomic policies. Macroeconomic Analysis, Yemen, Aggregate
Demand, Money Supply 

85. Review of Regional Development and Crisis in Greater Darfur State Political Economy,
Government Expenditures and Related Policies Journal, Vol. 4, No. 62, April 2011 Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The crisis of
Greater Darfur Region of Sudan was amplified by global news media all over the world.
Civil conflict erupted, developed into armed rebellion and open uncontrolled civil war
that enveloped the whole region. Many sources estimated the resultant lost lives at over
300,000 individual while the Sudanese government sources estimated them at 10,000.
Displaced at refugees numbered over 3 millions and there were massive destruction of the
scanty infrastructure in the region. Many reasons for the conflicts were given, however,
most agree on that underdevelopment, lack of governmental plans to improve life, health,
education and human capital were the true reasons. In the current paper we present some
information on the whole country per se and then discuss some reasons and logics of
previous development structure, deficiencies and mismanagement or ill-conceptions. Sudan,
Greater Darfur Region, Underdevelopment, Conflict, Human Capital 

86. Assessment of Macroeconomic Variables Performance of the Sudanese Economy (1970-2008)
Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 3, No. 75, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics Abstract The performance of the Sudanese economy is
an enigma of failures even with all the potentials of country's resources. The
failure started since the year 1970 and continued the descent even with massive economic
support during the following decades. Excluding the political instability and the
epidemic of corruption that continued to engulf the economy, there are reasons that
mismanagement affected the economic performance. The entry of oil production into the
Sudanese economy did not improve the macroeconomic situation, services or income per
capita, but resulted in escalating the urge of the authorities to control money supply.
There were signs that ill-policies strangulated the economy. Moreover, there are strong
signs that the real economic production sectors deteriorated in its outputs and income
sharing. Macroeconomic Variables, Money Supply, Income Per capita, Sudan 

87. Global Financial Crisis and Effects on the Agricultural Sector of Sudan SSRN Working
Paper Series Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract
The severe impacts of the global financial crisis had effects on all world. However, in
Sudan scientists and researchers were greatly shocked because of the governmental
camouflaging on their real effects on the economy. Minister of National Economy and
Finance denied the effects on the Sudanese economy. The governor of the Sudan Central
bank did the same with emphasis from both that everything are quite and normal and that
Sudan can absorb all shocks on its economic performance. Truly, they ave eaten their
words in the following months and confessed the partial effects on the Sudanese economy.
Moreover, after they were expelled from their jobs they were quoted in newspapers to say
that the impacts of the global financial crisis have severely the Sudanese economy and
that it was not different from other countries. We introduce in this paper a survey for
the impacts that occurred to the Sudanese agricultural sector. The damaged that befell it
is extended because the governmental policies were not encouraged to do so. Moreover,
what decision-makers declared impacted any possible processes of rectifications and when
they confessed the impacts the damages were already en-rooted. It is foreseen here that a
complete and full restructuring is direly need to the macroeconomic and decision-making
in the regime's system. Without it, food shortages and total food insecurity is seen
coming. Sudan, global Financial Crisis, Agricultural Sector, Macroeconomic Policies,
Production, Food Insecurity 

88. Impacts of Sudan Macroeconomic Policy on Agriculture SSRN Working Paper Series Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract: The crisis of
Southern Sudan and eminent secession in 9 July 2011 is a nightmare to the Sudanese
national economy. The dependence on oil revenue that controlled the country for the past
11 years and negligence of the other real economy's economic sectors, agriculture
and industry severely threatens the country. That is not only with diminished returns but
with also with economic nightmarish economic catastrophe, famine and internal implosion.
Short-sightedness on utilizing the oil money that bubbled the economy atrophied the real
economic sectors and disabled it from responding to secession consequences of parting
with 75% of revenues from oil that going with the south. The industrial sector died with
over-taxation and the agricultural sector emaciated with the privatization, lack of funds
to be re-innovated, maintained or be supplied with normalized prices of inputs (Issam AW
Mohamed 2011). Moreover, crisis in Darfur and recently in Southern Kordofan regions
marginalized their abilities to share in agricultural production. The current paper
discusses changes that occurred in the agricultural sector of Sudan and how it tuned into
predated prey to taxation and levies Issam AW Mohamed 1991). The regression of the
economic sectors does not support assumptions that there can be recovery in the sort or
the medium terms. Moreover, the declared responses of macroeconomic policies seem vague
on how to ameliorate the current and future situation. More likely, it seems like
dream-walking that enhances beliefs that it is not realistic. In our conclusions, unless
there are quick responses from the international society it is more likely that there
shall be total and irreversible collapse of the whole Sudanese economy. 

89. Assessment and Economics of Water Resources in South Darfur State SSRN Working Paper
Series Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The
crisis of Greater Darfur region continued for the past eight years with so many
postulations of the reasons behind the rebellions and uprisings there. Many voiced their
concerns about human sufferings, but all agreed on that reasons focus on less or
non-existent development. United Nations' Secretary General Ban declared that water
scarcity is one of the major reasons for the conflict and anger. In the present paper we
have different theory that water resources in Dafur are abundant, only awaiting tapping
and present a description of South Darfur region. It is possible with the proper
financing and honest efforts to deliver enough untapped water resources that suffice for
all economic activities. Sudan, Southern Darfur, Water Scarcity, Availability, Resources 

90. Bringing Down the Temple on Everyone's Head: Suicide by Economic Demise Working
Paper Series Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract
The Sudanese political crisis is delivered worldwide in all media. Current issues are
focused on the Southern Secession and birth of the South Sudan Nation, the recent
rebellion in Southern Kordofan, the Darfur stalemate. Additional crisis are brewing in
Sudan's Eastern Region of the Red Sea, the Lands of the legendary Fuzzy Wuzzy and
another in the Northern land of ancient civilization, Nubatia. That seems like simulated
infectious epidemic predictive call for democracy and liberty from totalitarian regime.
However, in our current paper we introduce another theory that such conceals uprisings
are simulated by economic management of the country, rife corruption, escalated poverty
and destitution of the nation and unprecedented economic hoardings that left the masses
with diminishing resources for bare subsistence and survival. Impacts of the Global
Financial Crisis were heavy on a country that neglected its potential agricultural
resources and mainly depended on scanty oil resources. Secession of the Southern Sudan
will deprive it from 75% of those resources which leaves the country in a bleak
situation. Additionally, its financial and banking institutions suffered massive losses
that left it crippled and unable to finance the other real economic sectors, e.g.,
agriculture and industry. Moreover, shadow and fraud financial institutions called the
Pipes deprived the people of their savings in many regions. Authorities stood unwilling
and unable to carry out rectifications and restructurings of the economy with diminishing
ability to borrow from the International Society that unwilling to extend hand for help.
Sudan, Darfur, South Kordofan, Darfur, Political Stalemate, Economic Crisis, Global
Financial Crisis 

91. Crisis of a Nation: The Delirium SSRN Working Paper Series Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract: This is the first part of a
book I started writing in the year 2008 under the title of Sad Triology: The Crisis of a
Nation. I name this chapter the Delirium as it represents the political response to what
happens in the country due to the international outrage and pressures to Darfur Crisis.
This part is narrating pressures on Sudan's Inqaz regime, specially after the Darfur
region crisis and civil wars, the rage of the international society and responses, the
impacts of the International Instututions including the ICC and the hunt for justice. All
those qualitative variables had responses inside the country. Political chaos ensued
because of the generated cries for human rights violations, invisible and visible
embargo, growing pressures and internal public uncertainty. However, the responses of
Inqaz regime were not resilient or compromising, there were violent reactions and
denials. The logics behind should be referred to being cornered and threatened by the
indictments of the ICC. Defiant responses and recalls were vouched and political
entrenchment was initiated. Meanwhile, the social nation's stability was shaken even
more with the calls of the international society and feeling of being cornered and
collectively indicted. Economic conditions gradually worsened under inflation and
unemployment with escalated costs and requirements for defense. We recognize the major
players in this tragedy as the Western countries, specifically the United States of
America, England and France who probably ensued a strategy of exhaustion to the Sudanese
regime. However, we cannot recognize if the final endeavors were to execute a
disintegration of Sudan or only to topple the regime. The tragedy continues not only with
the Secession of Southern Sudan but also with the civil war in Kordofan and Darfur and
eminent secession of the Great Blue Nile region. Sudan, Secession, ICC, Civil Conflict,
Disintegration 

92. Sustainability and Economic Development in Southern Rossereis Agricultural Project in
the Blue Nile State-Sudan Environmental Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 79, May 12, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract This study
aims to explore a suitable approach to a sustainable development of agricultural
resources on the ground that development is a milestone for rebuilding our country. Among
the various dimension of development we give priority to development of agricultural
resources referring to the fact that the Sudan is rich in it’s agricultural resources
which make the agricultural sector as the leading sector in Sudan economy. Empirical
practice is necessary to verify our hypotheses, we choose Southern Rossaires project in
Blue Nile region to carry out our field study, as the project is considered as one of
projects that aim to reach a sustainable development. The paper proceeds by reviewing
theoretical thoughts over development and the history of development in Sudanese
agricultural sector. That is carried out with special focus in the main aspects of each
periods of this history. A part of this paper concentrates on the project region
exploring it’s climatic, environmental, social and economic aspects, as well as previous
development terials experienced in the region, such as Blue Nile integrated development
project. Furthermore, the study has paid attention to explore various activities in the
country for social, economic, environmental and agricultural levels. Agricultural
Development, Sustainability, Blue Nile, Sudan 

93. WTO-Doha Multilateral Trade Negotiations and Agriculture SSRN Working Paper Series
Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The Doha
Development Round or Doha Development Agenda (DDA) is the current trade-negotiation round
of the World Trade Organization (WTO), which launched in November 2001. With the start of
this round, non-trade concerns (NTCs) were explicitly renowned and integrated into the
negotiation process. Generally, multi-functionality proponents attempt to resist
agricultural trade liberalization by giving high support to protect their domestic
producers. These are net food importing countries, some small countries with highly
protected agricultural sector and large trade deficits in some main outputs and
unfavourable agro-climatic conditions. The opponents of the multi-functionality argument
all claim to recognize the legitimacy of other countries' non-trade concerns.
However, they insist that NTCs should be safeguarded by measures that are not trade
distorting. Thus, they challenge countries with significant NTCs to devise green box
measures for protecting them. This paper analyses the debate surrounding
multi-functionality in the context of the WTO Millennium Round negotiations on
agricultural trade liberalization. Six points of contention are discussed in detail. The
paper also considers whether the concept of multi-functionality contributes to the
framework for the negotiations. Also, the paper sheds light on the case of Sudan in
regard with multi-functionality of agriculture and the case of Sudan. Trade
Liberalization, Agriculture, WTO, Doha, Environmental Factors, Externalities 

94. Secession and Voluntary Return in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between Northern
and Southern Sudan SSRN Working Paper Series Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics Abstract: The date of South secession is coming soon at the 9th
July 2011. However, there is the problem of people from the south who live in the north.
Some of them where behaving as natural citizens and had jobs or education or even lived
for decades and centuries in the north. Others were internally displaced people, but both
are compelled to return to their homes in the south as the Comprehensive Peace Agreement
signed by the twp parties, North and South have stressed on. That created inevitable
another displacement or uprooting for them and definitely another human tragedy. This
paper is part of a field survey conducted on the displaced people from Southern Sudan who
were encouraged to return to the south before and after the referendum for secession of
unity in one nation. The motive behind that survey was to study a phenomenon that emerged
for those displaced due to security and economic reasons. The phenomenon was that many of
then returned to the north after financial support given for them for voluntary return to
the south. The efforts to study reasons behind that were individual efforts and finance
as an academic assessment of why people of some region refuse to return. An analysis for
the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed by parties the Government of Sudan and Sudan
Popular Liberation Movement was first carried out as a background for the study. Dinka
Ngok, the selected tribal group who lives in Abeyi district were surveyed to investigate
why they selected to go north and why they did not settle when they were helped for a
voluntary return. The results show that the Abeyi district still lacks basic services and
living conditions are very difficult. Besides, they did not believe that security
conditions are suitable for living there with the continuous conflict and hidden anger.
The study also confirm the indispensable and vital role of the NGO's in helping and
supporting the internally displaced people in Sudan with specific mention of the people
from the south. Keywords: Sudan, Southern Secession, Displaced People, Abyei, NGO's,
CPA 

95. The Impacts of Southern Sudan Post-Secession on the White Nile Province Tribalism and
Civil Administration Conflict Studies Journal, Vol. 5, No. 20, February 24, 2011
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The Southern Sudan secession is
a de facto situation that both the Northern government and the public have to deal with
on realistic grounds. There are economic, social and political ties which have to be
assessed under the new facts for both people in the north and south to prevent future
disputes. The fact that many Northern monadic tribes lead their livestock to Southern
regions represents nucleus disputes reasons. There are social and demographic
interrelationships that cannot simply be ignored for their economic, social and
demographic blends. The current paper suggests that the involvement of the tradition
tribal administration can be an extremely beneficial tool. That is with special
consideration for the interactive geographic and demographic variables that control life
and future peace or disputes. The paper recommends the integration of the civil
administration within the official governmental administrative body. That is to create
effective tool for a peaceful secession and mutual cooperation. Keywords: Secession,
Tribalism, Civil Administration 

96. The Impacts of Public Expenditure on GDP in UAE (1990-2009) Macroeconomics, Monetary
and Fiscal Policies Journal, Vol. 4, No. 20, February 4, 2011 Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics Abstract GDP represents one of the main sources of national
income to the United Arab Emirates, where this contributes with not less than (90%) in
gross national income of the state. Emirate of Abu Dhabi contributed between (53%-62%) in
GDP during the period (1990-2009), while contributed to the Emirate of Dubai is between
(24%-35%) in the GDP of the UAE during the same period, illustrated by the percentage
contribution of the five other emirates combined (Sharjah, Ajman, Ras Al Khaimah,
Fujairah, Umm Al Quwain) during the study period ranged between (3%-23%). The UAE's
economy developed remarkably during the period (1990-2009) supported by the growing oil
revenues, the main result of the escalation of prices in the international market and
access to record levels, especially in the last years of the period in question, as well
as the growth of the quantities of oil from 1990 to 2009 it which was reflected in the
high pace of economic activity due to the implementation of large-scale projects public
and private, where GDP rose at current prices of (125.266) billion AED in 1980 (914.300)
billion AED in 2009, it all led to exceed the growth rate (630% ), in other words, the
GDP of the UAE has doubled more than six times during the period (1990-2009). As a result
of the analysis of econometric models, it was shown that there is a strong impact by the
public expenditure on GDP as an increase in public expenditure in the UAE million dirhams
lead to an increase in gross domestic product (4.159) million dirhams, and that public
spending contributes to a (90%) to explain and interpret the changes that will occur in
the gross domestic product. Also showed the results of econometric models estimate that
there is a significant effect by the public expenditure on all sources of GDP. Keywords:
UAE, Public Expenditure, GDP 

97. Power Game, Stockholm Pathogen, Tyranny and the Disintegration of the Sudanese Nation
Institutions and Transition Economics, Political Economy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 9, January
17, 2011 Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Abstract The current paper
suggests that the national salvation coup de etat power-overtaking and the creation of
the NCP (National Congress Party) dominated Sudan only a process similar to Pathogenic
Stockholm Syndrome. That conforms with what Gramsci suggests as an inevitable methodology
to have sustainable hegemony over a whole nation for a prolonged time. Religious dogma
was a permeation throughout society of an entire system of values, attitudes, beliefs and
morality that has the effect of supporting the status quo in power relations. The
succeeding extraction of the nation's economic surplus was only a result of absolute
power utility. The paper concludes that was a process for the confiscation of the
people's ability to reason. The result is a de facto disintegration of the social
fabric and cohesion of the nation. A vacuum of institutional interregnum was generated
because of the failed state. Keywords: Power, Stockholm Syndrome, Institutional
Interregnum 

98. On Tyranny and Economic Greed: The NCP and the Disintegration of the Sudanese Nation
Human Rights and the Global Economy Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, January 11, 2011 Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics Abstract The present paper is part of an unpublished
book divided into three interrelated manuscripts that analyze the collapse of the Sudan.
The current paper concludes that the decision of the International Criminal Court to
arrest President Bashir triggered a process for the disintegration of an unprecedented
tyrannical regime that embezzled the Sudanese nation under the pretext of imposing
Islamic Sharia Laws. However, there is a pronounced prominent conflict manifested here
which is the question whether it was a real Islamic law, or was it only a powerful tool
to control the country. The dogma imposed a hegemonic regime that extracted all economic
surplus, sequestered civil rights and committed genocide in all the country's
regions. The result is that the country has undergone a de facto division and
disintegration process. Moreover, a vacuum of institutional interregnum was generated
because of the failed state. Keywords: Tyranny, Genocide and Economic Greed, Sudan,
institutional interregnum, Failed State 

Other Published Papers أهم الأوراق المنشورة Issam A.W. Mohamed and Mohamed Eljack Ahmed
(2010) Challenges of Social Security in Sudan. Paper Presented for the Fredrich Eibrich
Foundation Conference in the Middle East. Socioeconomic Forum on Labor Market and Social
Policies. Mohamed Eljack Ahmed and Issam A.W. Mohamed (2010) Labor Market in Sudan. Paper
Presented for the Fredrich Eibrich Foundation Conference in the Middle East.
Socioeconomic Forum on Labor Market and Social Policies. Issam A.W. Mohamed (2006) The
Viability of Economic Utilization of Wadis in the Sudan: Case Study of Wadi Almugadam.
The Southern Pacific Journal of Economics. 132: 1. الاستغلال الاقتصادي للأودية في السودان
: دراسة حالة وادي المقدم شمال كردفان . مجلة جنوب المحيط الهادئ . 13 : 1 . Issam A.W.
Mohamed (2006). An Analysis of Job Satisfaction in Sudanese Universities. A Case Study of
Alneelain University. The Nile Basin Research Journal. Vol. 4 (1): Pp. 18-37. عصام عبد
الوهاب محمد (2006) تحليل لمستويات الرضاء الوظيفي في الجامعات السودانية . مجلة أبحاث حوض
النيل . المجلد (4) العدد الأول : 18-37. Issam A.W. Mohamed (2005). Theoretical Profile
and Applications of Social Accounting Systems. Journal of the Faculty of Arts. University
of Gar Unis, Faculty of Arts, Bengazi, Libya. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (2005) الإطار النظري
وتطبيقات نظم المحاسبة الاجتماعية . مجلة كلية الآداب . جامعة جار يونس ، بنغازي – ليبيا .
Issam A.W. Mohamed (2005) The Influence of Father’s Absence on the Arabic Family. Journal
of the Faculty of Arts. University of Gar Unis, Faculty of Arts, Bengazi, Libya. عصام عبد
الوهاب محمد (2005) أثر غياب رب الأسرة علي الأسرة العربية . مجلة كلية الآداب . جامعة جار
يونس ، بنغازي – ليبيا . Issam A.W. Mohamed (2005) Economic Theory on the Politics of Soft
Budgets' Constraints. Economic & Political Review. (72) 3: 12. عصام عبد الوهاب
محمد (2005) نظرية اقتصادية عن السياسات المحددة للميزانيات المرنة . مجلة السياسة والقانون
. (73) العدد الثالث : 12 . Issam A.W. Mohamed (2005) Impacts of Nonlinear Taxation on
Financier's Function. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal. (9) 3: 6. أثر الضرائب
اللاخطية علي أداء الممول . مجلة أكاديمية الأعمال . (9) 3:6 Issam A.W. Mohamed (2004)
Effects of Non-farm Employment on Gender and Poverty. A Comparative Study of Sudan and
Uganda. The Nile Basin Research Journal. Vol. 2 (1): Pp. 181-200. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد
(2003) أثر العمالة الغير مزرعية علي النوع والفقر . مجلة أبحاث حوض النيل . المجلد (1)
العدد الأول : 181-200. Issam A.W. Mohamed (2003) The Social Impacts of the Absence of
Head of the Family. Journal of Omdurman Islamic University. March, No. 5, P. 123-131.
عصام عبد الوهاب بوب . النتائج المترتبة علي غياب رب الأسرة (2003) مجلة جامعة أم درمان
الإسلامية . مارس ، العدد الخامس ص 123-131 . Issam A.W. Mohamed (2002) The Military
Establishment and the Political Structure of the Sudan. Dirasat Ifriqiyya. 27: 57-78.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (2002) المؤسسة العسكرية والهيكل السياسي في السودان . دراسات أفريقية
. العدد 27 : 57-78. Issam A.W. Mohamed (2001) Conceptions of Poverty, Employment and Food
Security. Arts and Sciences (JAS). Vol. 1 (1): Pp. 29-45. عصام عبد الوهاب (2001) مفهوم
الفقر والعمالة والأمن الغذائي في السودان . مجلة العلوم والآداب . المجلد (2) العدد الأول :
29-45. Issam A.W. Mohamed and Yoji Takeoka (2001) Analysis of the Institutional Land
Rights in the Rainfed Farming of the Sudan. The Nile Basin Research Journal. Vol. 1 (3):
Pp. 181-200. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد ويوجي تاكياوكا (2001) تحليل اقتصادي لأثر الحقوق
المؤسسية للأرض في مناطق الزراعة المطرية في السودان . مجلة أبحاث حوض النيل ، المجلد (1)
العدد الثالث :171-199. Issam A.W. Mohamed (2000) Pension Reforms, Efficiency and Equity
Trade-off. University of Juba Journal of Arts and Sciences (UJJAS). Vol. 1 (1): Pp.
21-46. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (2000) كفاءة التقويم المعاشي في السودان . مجلة جامعة جوبا
للعلوم والآداب . المجلد الأول (1) 21-46. Issam A.W. Mohamed (2000) Economic Adjustment
and the Agricultural Sector of the Sudan. The Nile Basin Research Journal. Vol. 1 (1):
Pp. 181-200. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (2000) أثر التكيف الاقتصادي علي القطاع الزراعي في
السودان . مجلة أبحاث حوض النيل ، المجلد (1) العدد الأول: 181-200. Issam A.W. Mohamed and
Yoji Takeoka (1999) Economic Analysis of Salinity Conditions and Improvement Strategies.
Nippon Crops Science Society. Vol. 74 (4): Pp. 72-82. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد ويوجي تاكياوكا
(1999) تحليل اقتصادي لأثر ملوحة التربة واستراتيجيات تحسين الأرض . الجمعية العلمية لعلوم
المحاصيل اليابانية ، المجلد (74) العدد الرابع :72-82. Issam A.W. Mohamed (1999)
Evolutionary Framework for Agricultural Production and Environmental Resources. The
Developing Economies. Vol. 36 (2): Pp. 27-49. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1999) إطار لتقييم
الإنتاج الزراعي والموارد البيئية . الاقتصاديات النامية . المجلد (36) العدد الثالث :
27-49. Issam A.W. Mohamed (1999) Optimal Taxation in a Federal System of Governments.
Southern Pacific Economic Journal of Agricultural Development Studies. Vol. 5 (2): Pp.
70-80. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1999) تقدير المستويات الضريبية المثلي تحت نظام سياسي فيدرالي
. مجلة جنوب المحيط الهادي لدراسات التنمية الزراعية . المجلد (5) العدد الثاني : 70-80.
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Yoji Takeoka (1996) A Note on the Role of Economics in Valuing
Environmental Effects of Development. Development Studies. Vol. 16 (3) Pp. 18-25. عصام
عبد الوهاب محمد ويوجي تاكياوكا (1996) دور العلوم الاقتصادية في تقييم الآثار البيئية
للتنمية . مجلة الدراسات التنموية . المجلد (16) العدد الثالث : 18-25 . Issam A.W. Mohamed,
Yoji Takeoka and Hiroyuki Takeya (1995) Environmental Degradation in the Sudan: Economic
Assessment (In Japanese). Japan Journal for Crop Science. Vol. 64 (2) Pp. 338-342. عصام
عبد الوهاب محمد ويوجي تاكيأكوكا وهيرويوكي تاكيا (1995) تقييم اقتصادي للتجرد البيئي في
السودان . المجلة اليابانية لعلوم المحاصيل. المجلد (64) العدد الثاني : 338-342. Issam A.W.
Mohamed (1995) Accidental Quality of Land Ownership and Compensation for the Unexhausted
Value of Improvement (In Japanese). Journal of Agricultural Economics. 66 (4) Pp.
202-209. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1995) أثر نوع ملكية علي القيمة التعويضية لعمليات تحسين
الأرض الغير مستنفذة . مجلة الاقتصاد الزراعي . المجلد (66) العدد الرابع : 202-209. Issam
A.W. Mohamed and Hiroyuki Takeya (1995) Agricultural Systems and Resources Productivity
in Sahelian Africa. Journal of Agricultural Development Studies. Vol. 5(2): 70-80. عصام
عبد الوهاب محمد وهيرويوكي تاكيا (1995) النظم الزراعية وإنتاجية الموارد في الساحل الأفريقي
. مجلة دراسات التنمية الزراعية . المجلد (5) العدد الثاني : 70-80 . Issam A.W. Mohamed and
Yoji Takeoka (1995) Improvement of Human Resources in Agricultural Production (In
Japanese). Keizai Ronso (The Economic Digest) Vol. 2 (3): Pp. 1-10. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد
ويوجي تاكيأكوكا (1995) تحسين الموارد البشرية في الإنتاج الزراعي . الملخص الاقتصادي .
المجلد (2) العدد الثالث : 202-209. Issam A.W. Mohamed (1995) An Overview of the Economic
Development of the African Traditional Sector. The Economic Review. Vol. 27 (1): Pp.
3-18. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1995) تحليل للتنمية الزراعية في القطاع الزراعي التقليدي في
أفريقيا . المرجع الاقتصادي . المجلد (27) العدد الأول : 3-18. Issam A.W. Mohamed (1994)
The Role of Economies and Economists in Environmental Policy. Journal of Environmental
Economics. Vol. 21 (3): Pp. 45-56. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1994) دور علم الاقتصاد
والاقتصاديون في رسم السياسات البيئية . المجلد (21) العدد الثالث : 45-46. Issam A.W.
Mohamed and Hiroyuki Takeya (1994) Agricultural Development, Rural Poverty and Income
Distribution in the Sudan. Journal of Agricultural Development Studies. Vol. 4 (2): Pp.
1-11. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد وهيرويوكي تاكيا (1994) أثر التنمية الزراعية علي الفقر الريفي
وتوزيع الدخل في السودان . مجلة دراسات التنمية الزراعية . المجلد (4) العدد الثاني : 1-11.
Issam A.W. Mohamed (1994) Sudan’s Livestock Economy. The Economic Review. Vol. 40 (2):
Pp. 36-44. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1994) اقتصاديات الثروة الحيوانية في السودان . العرض
الاقتصادي . المجلد (40) العدد الثاني : 36-44 . Issam A.W. Mohamed, Yoji Takeoka and
Hiroyuki Takeya (1994) An Assessment of the Environmental Degradation in the Sahel Region
(In Japanese). Japan Journal for Crop Science. Vol. 63 (4): Pp. 734-738. عصام عبد الوهاب
محمد ويوجي تاكيأوكا وهيرويوكي تاكيا (1994) تقييم حقلي للتجرد البيئي في منطقة الساحل
الأفريقي . المجلة اليابانية لعلوم المحاصيل . المجلد (63) العدد الرابع : 734-738 . Issam
A.W. Mohamed (1994) Reversing the Decline. Agricultural Policy in Sub Saharan Africa: A
General Review. Journal of Economic Development Research. Vol. 11 (3): Pp. 19-33. عصام
عبد الوهاب محمد (1994) تحليل اقتصادي لأثر السياسات الزراعية في جنوب الصحراء الأفريقية علي
الإنتاج . مجلة بحوث التنمية الاقتصادية . المجلد (11) العدد الثالث : 19-33 . Issam A.W.
Mohamed, Yoji Takeoka and Hiroyuki Takeya (1994) Changes of the Agricultural Production
Systems and Encroachment of Desertification in the Sahel (In Japanese). Japan Journal for
Crop Science. Vol. 118: Pp. 49-54. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد ويوجي تاكيأوكا وهيرويوكي تاكيا
(1994) أثر التغيرات في نظم الإنتاج الزراعي والزحف الصحراوي في الساحل الأفريقي . المجلة
اليابانية لعلوم المحاصيل. المجلد (118) 49-54 . Issam A.W. Mohamed and Hiroyuki Takeya
(1994) Sources of Productivity in the Traditional and the Mechanized Farming in the Sudan
(In Japanese). Chubo Agricultural Economists VII Conference, Gifu, Japan. Published in
the Proceedings: Pp. 27-37. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد وهيرويوكي تاكيا (1994) المصادر الإنتاجية
لنظم الزراعة التقليدية والآلية في السودان . ورقة قدمت ونشرت في مؤتمر تشوبو الرابع
للاقتصاديين الزراعيين . جيفو – اليابان : 27-37 . Issam A.W. Mohamed and Hiroyuki Takeya
(1994) Sustainability of Agriculture: Conceptual Trends in Underdeveloped Situation. 3rd
Annual Conference of the Japanese Society of Regional and Agricultural Development:
Tsukuba, Japan. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد وهيرويوكي تاكيا (1994) تحليل لمفهوم الاستدامة في
الزراعة تحت ظروف التنمية المتخلفة . المؤتمر الثالث للجمعية اليابانية الإقليمية للتنمية
الزراعية . تسوكوبا ، اليابان . Issam A.W. Mohamed and Yoji Takeoka (1994) A Dual Economy
Model of New Keynesian Type with Self-Employing Producers. Towards the Principles of
Agricultural Macroeconomics (In Japanese). Journal of Agricultural Economics Research.
Vol. 66 (1): Pp. 1-11. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد ويوجي تاكيأوكا (1994) نموذج اقتصادي ازدواجي
للكينيزية الجديدة بالتطبيق علي العمالة الذاتية . مجلة بحوث الاقتصاد الزراعي المجلد (66)
العدد الأول : 1-11. Issam A.W. Mohamed and Yoji Takeoka (1993) Relationships of Global
Environmental Conservation Systems and the Development of Agriculture (In Japanese).
Journal of Rural Economy. Vol. 12 (5) Pp. 68-73. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد ويوجي تاكيأوكا
(1993) العلاقة بين نظم المحافظة علي البيئة والتنمية الزراعية . مجلة الاقتصاد الريفي .
المجلد (12) العدد الخامس : 68-73 . Issam A.W. Mohamed (1993) Clarifications of the
Concept of Sustainability in Agriculture and an Overview of the History of Agricultural
Technology (In Japanese). Keizai Ronso (The Economic Digest). Vol. 65 (1) Pp. 2-11. عصام
عبد الوهاب محمد (1993) توضيح لمفاهيم الاستدامة الزراعية واستطلاع لتاريخ تطور التقنية
الزراعية . المستخلص الاقتصادي . المجلد (65) العدد الأول : 2-11 . Issam A.W. Mohamed
(1993) Remedial Taxes and Auctions of Land Rights in Controlling Externalities. Eastern
Economic Journal. Vol. 19 (2) Pp. 27-32. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1993) أثر الضرائب المعالجة
والحقوق الأرض في معالجة المؤثرات الاقتصادية الخارجية . المجلة الاقتصادية الشرقية . المجلد
(19) العدد الثاني : 27-32 . Issam A.W. Mohamed (1993) Agricultural Development,
Deforestation, Sustainability and Policy Implications in Africa. A Preliminary Note.
Journal of Economic Development Research. Vol. 10 (1) Pp. 192-211. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد
(1993) أثر السياسات الزراعية علي التنمية والتعرية الغابية والاستدامة في أفريقيا . مجلة
بحوث اقتصاديات التنمية . المجلد (10) العدد الأول : 192-211 . Issam A.W. Mohamed (1993)
Comprehensive Sustainable Development Strategies of Marginal Regions: the Integration of
Proximate Rainfed Lands in the Sudan. The Proceedings of the 2nd Nilo-Ethiopian II
Conference. October-Nagoya, Japan. Pp. 127-136. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1993) استراتيجيات
التنمية المستدامة للأقاليم الهامشية بالتطبيق علي الأراضي النيلية في السودان . ورقة قدمت
ونشرت في محاضر مؤتمر النيل-إثيوبيا الثاني . اكتو بر (1993) ناجويا – اليابان . Issam A.W.
Mohamed (1991) Changes of Agricultural Structure in the Sahel and its Implications of
Drought and Famine. The XXI IAAE (International Association of Agricultural Economists)
Conference, Tokyo, August 1991. Contributed Papers published by the Proceedings of the
Agricultural Economics Society of Japan. Pp. 42-57. عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1991) أثر
التغيرات في النظم الزراعية في الساحل الأفريقي علي الجفاف والمجاعة . ورقة قدمت ونشرت في
محاضر المؤتمر العاشر للجمعية العالمية للاقتصاديين الزراعيين في اليابان 1991 . Issam A.W.
Mohamed and Farouk Salih (1988) Economic Analysis for the Effects of Feeding Poultry
Manure on Growth under Sudanese Conditions. Sudan Journal of Animal Production. Vol. 1
(1) Pp. 56-60. 

Recently Scholarly Published Papers on International Journals (Paper and Journal Volume,
Date of Publication and Number, Sponsoring Institute and Internet address). Click on the
Link to Read. First: The Social Science Research Network http://www.ssrn.com Published by
Chicago Booth: University of Chicago, Booth School of Business
http://www.chicagobooth.edu/, European Corporate Governance Institute,
http://www.ecgi.org/ Stanford Law School, http://www.law.stanford.edu/ Korea University,
http://www.korea.ac.kr/~eng/ Keys: Paper Tile, Journal name, issue, number, volume, date,
Authors, Institution and electronic published link on the internet. 1. Hyenas and Lambs:
The Implications of Impacts of South Sudan Secession Conflict Studies Journal, Vol. 5,
No. 14, February 11, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of
Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1748608 

2. The Impact of Privatization on State-Owned Enterprises Performance and Efficiency:
Case Study of Sudan Airways Antitrust Law and Policy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 21, February
28, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1761297 

3 The Janjaweed, the Armed Movements and the Political Disintegration of Sudan Conflict
Studies Journal, Vol. 5, No. 8, January 28, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University
- Department of Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1733012 

4 Trade Liberalization and Poverty in Sudan Journal of Emerging Markets Economics:
Environmental & Social Aspects, Vol. 2, No. 27, March 18, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1775504 

5 Challenges of Formal Social Security Systems in Sudan Global Journal of Human Social
Sciences (GJHSS), Vol. 11, No. 2, March 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1728684 

6 The Impacts of Health Insurance System on Poverty Alleviation in Sudan: Case Study of
the National Fund for Health Insurance in Khartoum State (2003-2009) Health Economics
Journal. Vol. 3, No. 52, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed and Kamal M. Osman Al-Neelain University
- Department of Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1810662 

7 Review of Relationships Between Trade Liberalization and Poverty in Developing
Countries Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 3, No. 54, March 17, 2011 Issam A.W.
Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1775823 

8 Analysis of Impact of Cash Out-Flow from the Banking Sector on the Sudanese Economy
Banking and Financial Institutions Journal, Vol. 3, No. 39, March 7, 2011 Issam A.W.
Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1767387 

9 Effects of Macroeconomic Variables on Inflation Rates in Sudan (1990-2008)
Macroeconomics, Prices, Business Fluctuations and Cycles Journal, Vol. 4, No. 39, March
28, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1791362 

10 The Impacts of Social Justice and Wealth Distribution in Sudan (In Arabic) Law,
Institutions and Development Journal, Vol. 9, No. 10, February 23, 2011 Issam A.W.
Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1767387 

11 Economic Vision for Regional Nile River Basin Planning Political Economy: Development
Journal, Vol. 4, No. 42, March 07, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1755282 

12 Kleptocracy, Totalitarianism and Corruption Institutions and Transition Economics
Political Economy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 23, March 16, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1772003 

13 Potentials of Irrigated Agriculture in Improvement of Food Security in Southern Sudan
Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 3, No. 68, April 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1793385 

14 Sudanese North-South Border Tribes, Economic Interactions and Seeds of Conflict
Conflict Resolution and Prevention Management, Forthcoming Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1826045 

15 Totalitarianism, Elections and Inevitable Demise Political Institutions and Elections
Journal, Vol. 4, No. 12, March 17, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1771082 

16 Economics of Water Use in Semi-Arid Environment: Darfur Case Study Emerging Markets
Economics, Environmental and Social Aspects Journal, Vol. 2, No. 24, March 15, 2011 Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1769630 

17 Oil Discovery, Exploitation and Curse in Sudan Political Institutions, Bureaucracies
and Public Administration, Vol. 5, No. 39, March 17, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1772843 

18 Referendum, Secession and Intermixed Tribal Structure in Western-Southern Sudan
National, State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations Journal, Vol. 4, No.
55, April 27, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1810602 

19 Statistical Approaches and System Dynamics Econometrics, Mathematical Method and
Programming Journal, Vol. 4. No. 35, May 09, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1829221 

20 Totalitarianism, Economic Growth and Corruption Microeconomics, Welfare Economics and
Collective Decision-Making Journal, Vol. 3, No. 92, June 02, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1847468 

21 Cloning Totalitarianism and Surviving Political Change in Sudan Comparative Political
Economy Journal, Vol. 5, No. 57, April 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1802619 

22 Review of Civil Armed Conflicts and Impacts on Education in Darfur Crisis Immigration,
Refugee and Citizenship Law Journal, Vol. 12, No. 33, April 5, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1795470 

23 The Political Economy and the Risks of Institutional Reforms in the River Nile Water
Rights Institutional Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 33, May 27, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1845905 

24 Political Empowerment, Corruption and the Nation Crisis Political Institutions,
Bureaucracies and Public Administration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 38, March 16, 2011 Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1771826 

25 Dynamic Model for the Maximization of Dams Hydroelectric Power Generation
Econometrics, Mathematical Methods and Programming Journal, Vol. 4, No. 15, February 16,
2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed and Alrayah Mohammed Ishag Al-Neelain University - Department of
Economics and affiliation not provided to SSRN
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1756794 

26 Effects of Direct Foreign Capital on Economic Performance of Developing Countries:
Case Study of Sudan (2000-2009) International Finance Journal, Vol. 3, No. 71, 2011 Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1801651 

27 Nomads of Savannah, the Messeirya Tribe of Sudan and the Abyei Referendum Conflict (in
Arabic) Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 61, April 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1799631 

28 On Poverty, Employment, Food Security and Political Impacts in Sudan Poverty, Income
Distribution and Income Assistance Journal, Vol. 3, No. 7, April 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
and Kamal M. Osman Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics and Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1805792 

29 Reviewing Poverty Measurements and Analysis Philosophy and Methodology of Economics,
Vol. 2, No. 28, March 17, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of
Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1774603 

30 Analysis of the Educational Statistics of the Sudanese Secondary Certificate Labor and
Human Capital, March 30, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of
Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1791703 

31 Empowerment and the State Crisis in Sudan Law, Institutions and Development Journal,
April 4, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1791310 

32 Globalization and Economic Partnerships Effects on International Trade with Reference
to Sudan Development Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 74, April 14, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics Date Posted: April 1, 2011
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1799465 

33 Partnership Patterns and Trade Between Arab Countries International Trade Journal,
Vol. 3, No. 69, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1799435 

34 Using GARCH Model in the Analysis of Trade Liberalization and Poverty in Developing
Countries International and Comparative Law. Vol. 6, No. 32, March 14, 2011 Issam A.W.
Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1773105 

35 Appraisal of System Dynamics and Utility in the Economic Analysis Macroeconomics
Aggregative Models Journal, Vol. 4, No. 41, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University
- Department of Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1825239 

36 Coup De Etat, Fraud, Counterfeited Elections and the Art of Tearing a Nation Public
Choice, Analysis of Collective Decision-Making Journal. Vol. 4, No. 85, May 05, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1800208 

37 Economics of Water Use for Commodity Production in Scarcity Arid Regions: Kutum,
Darfur Development Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 49, March 10, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1769892 

38 Impacts of Southern Sudan Secession on the Hawazma Nomads of Southern Kordofan
National, State, Local Government and Intergovernmental Relations Journal, Vol. 4, No.
64, May 16, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1825927 

40 Political Mess, Lost Chances and Dark Future Political Institutions and Non-Democratic
Regimes Journal, Vol. 4, No. 22, May 18, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1832746 

41 Strategies of Conflict Resolution: Causes of War and Seeds of Peace in Abyei of
Southern Kordofan Institutions and Transition Economics, Political Economy Journal, Vol.
3, No. 42, May 30, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of
Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1844617 

42 Surveying HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Khartoum State with Reference to Economic Impacts
Health Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 43, April 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1807338 

43 The Effects of Trade Liberalization and Partnerships on the Sudanese Economy: Analysis
of COMESA International Trade Journal, Vol. 3, No. 50, March 14, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1774513 

44 The Sudanese Agriculture Development, History, Policies and Sustainability
Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics Journal. Vol. 3, No. 82, May 06, 2011 Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1829469 

45 An Analysis of Behavioral Growth Rates in Iraq Pre-Second Gulf War (In Arabic)
Political Analysis Quantitative Methods Journal, Vol. 5, No. 7, February 14, 2011 Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1753755 

46 Analysis of the Impacts of Money Supply on Income and Prices in the Sudan Monetary
Economics, Vol. 3, No. 53, March 25, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1790470 

47 Oil Explorations and Socioeconomic Impacts of Production in Sudan (in Arabic) Energy
Law and Policy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 15, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1792147 

48 An Overview of Economic Patterns of Partnerships Between Developing and Rich Countries
with Special Reference to USA and Sudan International Trade Journal, Vol. 3, No. 70, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1799438 

49 Applying System Dynamics Model for Macroeconomic Analysis of Yemen Econometrics,
Mathematical Methods and Programming Journal, Vol. 4, No. 38, May 19, 2011 Issam A.W.
Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1825905 

50 Armed Conflicts and Impacts on Education in Darfur Crisis Labor and Human Capital
Journal, Vol. 3, No. 54, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of
Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1795123 

51 Economic Perspective of Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Technology Transfer and Rural
Water Use in Darfur Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 42,
March 11, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1770585 

52 Empowerment, Corruption, Hoarding, Economic Chaos and Political Demise in Sudan Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1857529 

53 Hegemony, Islamic and Arab Economic Blocks Versus Globalization and International
Trade Agreements National, State and Local Government Intergovernmental Relations
Journal. Vol. 4, No. 59, May 04, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed and Mohamed A. Osman Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1823716 

54 Human Capital and the Economic Role of Women in Darfur-Sudan (Arabic) Issam A.W.
Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1761470 Working Paper Series 

55 Human Rights Violations, Missing Justice, Civil Conflicts and Darfur Political Future
Transitional Justice Journal. Vol. 2, Issue 18, June 10, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1847444 

56 Implications of Economic Interactions Between Northern and Southern Tribes of Sudan
Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Vol. 3, No. 46, March 17, 2011 Issam A.W.
Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1777325 

57 Notes on Across-Border Resources and Livelihood of the White Nile's Tribes Region
after Secession of Southern Sudan (in Arabic) Conflict Studies Journal, Vol. 5, No. 56,
June 02, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1837824 

58 Racism and the State, Discrimination and Disintegration Political Behavior, Race,
Ethnicity and Identity Politics Journal, Vol. 5, 55, May, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1833509 

59 Roots of Conflict, Arabs, Muslim and Historical Resources Conflicts (in Arabic)
Conflict Studies Journal, Vol. 5, No. 54, May 31, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed and Mohamed A.
Osman Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics and Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1829509 

60 Secession and Tribal Conflicts in Western Sudan (in Arabic) Comparative Political
Economy Journal, Vol. 5, No. 58, April 25, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University
- Department of Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1802758 

61 Short Review of Rural Development in Sudan Development Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No.
84, April 28, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1807335 

62 The Economics of Management and Financial Systems in Public Projects in Sudan Journal
of Development Economics, Vol. 3, No. 79, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1804341 

63 The Structure of the Yemeni Economy (1990-2008) Macroeconomics, National Income and
Product Accounts Journal, Vol. 4, No. 11, April 18, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1801484 

64 Theories of International Trade and Impacts of Hegemony (in Arabic) International
Trade Journal, Vol. 3, No. 95, May 18, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed and Mohamed A. Osman
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics and Al-Neelain University
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1833730 

65 Changing Coins: Economic Conditions, Terrorism, Political Regime and the Utility of
Emergency Status in Stabilizing Staggering Systems Journal of Development Economics, Vol.
3, No. 78, April 20, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of
Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1802643 

66 Empirical Applications for Survey Data on HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Khartoum State Health
Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 57, May 11, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University
- Department of Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1832769 

67 Evaluation of Sustainability from Socioeconomic and Political Approach in the Rosieres
Project Study Area of the Blue Nile States Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics
Journal, Vol. 3, No. 86, May 17, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1831481 

68 Globalization and Economic Partnerships Effects on International Trade with Reference
to Sudan International Trade Journal, Vol. 3, No. 65, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1799803 

69 Impacts of the Political Regime on the High Education System of Sudan Public Economics
Journal, Vol. 6, No. 21, May 9, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1833492 

70 Sovereignty and Politics, Hegemony and Survival Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1861908 

71 The Impacts of the Social Infrastructure on the Sudanese Civil Society Institutions:
Case Study of Khartoum Issam A.W. Mohamed and Mohamed A. Osman Al-Neelain University -
Department of Economics and Al-Neelain University
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1856613 

72 Cowboy and Bandits, International Society and National Disintegration Issam A.W.
Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1861921 

73 Defining Aspects and Theories of Food Security in Sudan Development Economics Journal,
Vol. 3, No. 113, June 8, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of
Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1852806 

74 Effects of the Economic and Environmental Factors on the Rural Water Use in Darfur
Region, Sudan Environmental Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 42, March 10, 2011 Issam A.W.
Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1771766 

75 Policies Determining Food and Nutrition Information Environment in Sudan Health
Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 66, June 6, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University
- Department of Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1852807 

76 The Impacts of Imbalanced Development on Migration: Case Study of Khartoum State,
Sudan Urban Economics and Regional Studies Journal, Vol. 4, No. 86, May 26, 2011 Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1842394 

77 Assessment of Macroeconomic Variables Performance of the Sudanese Economy (1970-2008)
Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 3, No. 75, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain
University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1800243 

78 Empirical Data Analysis of HIV/AIDS in Sudan with Reference to Khartoum State
Econometrics, Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology Journal. Vol. 4, Issue 45,
June 27, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1800243 

79 Land Dispute, Property Hoarding and Social Uprising in Sudan Property, Citizenship and
Social Entrepreneurism Journal, Vol. 8, No. 21, June 23, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed and
Mohamed A. Osman Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics and Al-Neelain
University http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1857528 

80 Ninety Nine Mountains, Self Determination and the Secession Off Sudan Political
Economy, National, State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations Journal,. Vol.
4, No. 69, May 24, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of
Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1842393 

81 Review of Regional Development and Crisis in Greater Darfur State Political Economy,
Government Expenditures and Related Policies Journal, Vol. 4, No. 62, April 2011 Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1805889 

82 Review of Somalia, Greed, Colonization and Socioeconomic Impacts Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1858865 

83 The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan 

Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1871767 

84 Brief Introduction of Macroeconomic Structure of Yemen (1990-2005) Macroeconomics,
Monetary and Fiscal Policies Journal, Vol. 4, No. 72, May 13, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1825904 

85 Sustainability and Economic Development in Southern Rossereis Agricultural Project in
the Blue Nile State-Sudan Environmental Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 79, May 12, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1829446 

86 Bringing Down the Temple on Everyone's Head: Suicide by Economic Demise Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1871951 

87 Economic and Environmental Effects and Rural Water Use in Darfur Region, Sudan Issam
A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1871805 

88 On Tyranny and Economic Greed: The NCP and the Disintegration of the Sudanese Nation
Human Rights and the Global Economy Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, January 11, 2011 Issam A.W.
Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1732921 

89 Power Game, Stockholm Pathogen, Tyranny and the Disintegration of the Sudanese Nation
Institutions and Transition Economics, Political Economy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 9, January
17, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1733845 

90 The Crisis of a Nation Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of
Economics http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1872884 

91 The Impacts of Public Expenditure on GDP in UAE (1990-2009) Macroeconomics, Monetary
and Fiscal Policies Journal, Vol. 4, No. 20, February 4, 2011 Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1753733 

92 The Impacts of Southern Sudan Post-Secession on the White Nile Province Tribalism and
Civil Administration PSN Conflict Studies Journal, Vol. 5, No. 20, February 24, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1757834 

Second: Papers accepted and Deposited at the University of Munich Library, Repec Research
papers on Economics), Science Gate and Econpaper (Economic papers) 

Property Rights, Land Disputes and Social Discontent in Sudan
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/cgi/users/home?eprintid=31855&screen=EPrint::View::Own
er Live Archive 

Impacts of Tribal and Economic Factors on Civil Conflict between North and South Sudan
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/cgi/users/home?eprintid=31811&screen=EPrint::View::Own
er Live Archive 

Tyrannical Greed and National Disintegration of the Sudanese Nation
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/cgi/users/home?eprintid=31812&screen=EPrint::View::Own
er Live Archive 

Economics and Hegemony; Globalization and International Trade Agreements
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/cgi/users/home?eprintid=31813&screen=EPrint::View::Own
er Live Archive 

The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/cgi/users/home?eprintid=31819&screen=EPrint::View::Own
er Live Archive 

Empirical Analysis of Field Data on HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Khartoum State, Sudan
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/cgi/users/home?eprintid=31783&screen=EPrint::View::Own
er Live Archive 

Introduction to the Macroeconomic Structure of Yemen
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/cgi/users/home?eprintid=31782&screen=EPrint::View::Own
er Live Archive 

Surveying HIV/AIDS Incidence in Sudan
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/cgi/users/home?eprintid=31781&screen=EPrint::View::Own
er Live Archive 

The economic and environmental factors of water in arid regions: Study of the rural water
use in Northern Darfur Region, Sudan
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/cgi/users/home?eprintid=31778&screen=EPrint::View::Own
er Live Archive 

Utilizing System Dynamics Models in Analyzing Macroeconomic Variables of Yemen
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/cgi/users/home?eprintid=31692&screen=EPrint::View::Own
er Live Archive 

السيادة والسياسة ، والهيمنة والبقاء
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/cgi/users/home?eprintid=31643&screen=EPrint::View::Own
er Live Archive 

إستعراض للموقف في الصومال ، الجشع ، الاستعمار والآثار الاقتصادية والاجتماعية
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/cgi/users/home?eprintid=31646&screen=EPrint::View::Own
er Live Archive 

Challenges of formal social security systems in Sudan
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/cgi/users/home?eprintid=31611&screen=EPrint::View::Own
er Live Archive 

Optimization of hydroelectric power generation, case study of Roseires Dam in Sudan Live
Archive 

http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/cgi/users/home?eprintid=31558&screen=EPrint::View::Own
er 

Books الكتب مناهج البحث العلمي The Impacts of Macroeconomic Adjustments on Sub Sahara
Africa. An Assessment of Groundwater Economic Potentials in Greater Darfur. 

Academic Supervision Supervision of Post Graduate Dissertations 0 Master Degrees in
Economic Development (Master Degree in Economic Development) The Impacts of Unbalanced
Economic Development on Immigration in the Sudan: Case Study of Khartoum State. Lena
Mohamed Ahmed Abdel Salam (2007). (ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) أثر التنمية الغير متوازنة
علي الهجرة في السودان : دراسة حالة ولاية الخرطوم . لينا محمد أحمد عبد السلام (2007) .
(Master Degree in Economic Development) The Contribution of Selected Regions in
Sustainable Human Development: Case Study of Lower Atbara. Khalid Alamin Mohamed Salih.
Awarded by Alneelain University (2000). (ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) اسهامات مشاريع
المناطق المختارة في التنمية البشرية المستدامة . دراسة حالة أدني نهر عطبرة . خالد الأمين
محمد صالح . جامعة النيلين (2000) . (Master Degree in Economic Development) The Investment
Conditions in the Sudan during 1961-1998. Saida Ahmad Ibrahim. Awarded by Alneelain
University (2000). (ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) تحليل لأثر الظروف الاستثمارية في السودان
خلال الأعوام 1961-1998 . سيدة أحمد إبراهيم . جامعة النيلين (2000) . (Master Degree in
Economic Development) Analysis of the Impacts of Structural Adjustment Programs in the
Sudan. Mohamed Abdalla Ali. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000). (ماجستير التنمية
الاقتصادية) تحليل اقتصادي لآثار برامج التكيف الهيكلي الاقتصادي في السودان (2000) محمد عبد
الله علي . (Master Degree in Economic Development) An Economic Analysis for the
Production and Exportation of Oilseeds in the Sudan. (1980-1998). Ishraqa Mohamed Alhag.
Awarded by Alneelain University (2000). (ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) تحليل اقتصادي لإنتاج
وتصدير الحبوب الزيتية في السودان بين 1980-1998. إشراقة محمد الحاج (2000) . (Master Degree
in Economic Development) The Effects of Intermediary Industries on the Development of
Sudanese Economy. Babikr Mohamed Fadl. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000). (ماجستير
التنمية الاقتصادية) أثر الصناعات التحويلية الوسيطة علي تنمية الاقتصاد السوداني . بابكر
محمد فضل (2000) . (Master Degree in Economic Development) The Impact of Industrial
Taxation on the Industrial Development in the Sudan. Garwig Peter Garkuth. Awarded by
Alneelain University (2000). (ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) الأثر الضريبي علي التنمية
الصناعية في السودان . بيتر جاد كوث (2000) . (Master Degree in Economic Development) The
Role of the Specialized Financing Institutes on Supporting the Weak Strata of the
Sudanese Society. Case Study: Bank of Social Development and Savings. Alnazeer Ali
Awouda. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000). (ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) دور المؤسسات
التمويلية المتخصصة في دعم الشرائح الضعيفة في المجتمع السوداني : دراسة حالة مصرف الادخار
والتنمية الاجتماعية . النذير علي عووضة (2000) . (Master Degree in Economic Development)
Problems and Remedies of Sudan’s Exports. The Oilseeds Case Study. Nadia Abdalaziz.
Awarded by Alneelain University (2000). (ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) تحليل اقتصادي لمشاكل
وعلاج الصادرات السودانية : دراسة حالة الحبوب الزيتية . ناديا عبد العزيز (2000) . 

(Master Degree in Economic Development) The Impacts of Banks' Financing on the
Agricultural Production in the Sudan. Ikhlas Mahmud Siddiq. Awarded by Alneelain
University (2000). (ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) أثر التمويل المصرفي علي الإنتاج الزراعي
السوداني . إخلاص محمود صديق (2000) . 

(Master Degree in Economic Development) Leather Industries and their Contribution in
Supporting the Sudanese National Economy. Hala Khalil Musa. Awarded by Alneelain
University (2000). (ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) مساهمة الصناعات الجلدية في دعم الاقتصاد
السوداني . هالة خليل موسى (2000) . 

(Master Degree in Economic Development) The Role of Sudanese Exports in Ameliorating
National Economy. Zeinab Awad Musa. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000). (ماجستير
التنمية الاقتصادية) دور الصادرات السودانية في تحسين الدخل القومي . زينب عوض موسى (2000) . 

(Master Degree In Economic Development) The Impact of the Industrial Sector of the Sudan
on the National Economy. Mona Khedir Alsheik. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000).
(ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) أثر إسهام القطاع الصناعي علي الاقتصاد القومي السوداني (2000)
. مني خضر الشيخ . 

(Master Degree in Economic Development) The Economics and Social Impacts of Solar Energy
on Development. Case Study: the Lighting System in Northern Kordofan. Howida Suliman
Mohamed. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000). (ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) اقتصاديات
والأثر الاجتماعي للطاقة الشمسية علي التنمية : دراسة حالة الإضاءة في شمال كردفان . (2000)
. 14. (Master Degree in Economic Development) The Impacts of the Application of World
Trade Organization Treaty on Pharmaceutical Industry of the Sudan. Sumaia Omar Abdel
Ghani (2006). الآثار الاقتصادية لانضمام السودان لمنظمة التجارة العالمية علي كفاءة تشغيل
صناعة الدواء في السودان . سمية عمر عبد الغني (2006) . 

Supervised Master’s Degrees in Economics (Master Degree in Economics) The Impacts of
Monetary Policies on Sudanese Banks Profits. Fadil Musa, Al Neelain University (2010).
The Effects of Income on Labor Productivity with Special Reference to Human Resources.
Hussien Osman Hussien, Al Neelain University. (2009). (Master Degree in Economics) The
Impacts of Displacement on the Socioeconomic Conditions of Women: Case Study of El Baraka
Camp, Khartoum State. Africa University (2009). (Master Degree in Economics) Methods of
Conflict Resolution in Ruwanda: Applied Field Survey of the Nianza City (1990-2008).
Maniraho Mohamed. Africa International University (2010). (Master Degree in Economics)
Effects of Inflation on Some Macroeconomic Variables: Application in Sudan (1990-2007).
Almardi Bala Abdallah. Al Neelain University (2009). (Master Degree in Economics)
Analysis of the Co-integration between Taxation Revenues and Macroeconomic Variables of
the Sudan (1989-2007). Mona Mohamed Babikr, Al Neelain University (2009). (Master Degree
in Economics) The Impacts of Training and Vocation on the Development of Human Resources
in Sudan: Case Study of Rabaat University Hospital Workers. Osman Hussein Tounis, Al
Neelain University (2010). (Master Degree in Economics) The Impacts of Macroeconomic
Policies on Investments in Sudan (1985-2003) Nicola Mario Abdallah, Al Neelain
University, (2009). (Master Degree in Economics) The effects of Taxation on the Reduction
of Environmental Pollution: Case Study of Japanese Textile Factory. Siham Salah Aldeen,
Al Neelain University (2009). (Master Degree in Economics) The effect of Economic
Globalization on Developing Countries. Case Study of Sudatel-Sudan. Hassan Abdallah
Gubara, Al Neelain University (2010). 

(Master Degree in Economics) Econometric Analysis for the Effect of Commercial Trade on
the Economic Balance in Sudan (1983-2008) Sara Abdel Gader Hassn, Al Neelain University
(2011). 

(Master Degree in Economics) Estimation of the Investment Function in Sudan (1979-2008)
Abu Obaida Ibrahim Adallah, Al Neelain University (2010). (Master Degree in Economics)
The Effect of Changes in Macroeconomic Variables on Inflation Rates in Sudan (1990-2008).
Abu Bakr Mohamed Al Hag Abakar, Al Neelain University (2011). 

(Master Degree in Economics) External Trade and River Nile Riparian Countries. Africa
International University (2010). The Impacts of External Debts on Gross Domestic
Production of the Sudan (1980-2009). Nahid Humida Jaber, Al Neelain University (2011). 

(Master Degree in Economics) Analysis of the Impacts of Global Financial Crisis on the
Sudanese Economy. Ibrahim Adam Abakar, Al Neelain University (2011). 

(Master Degree in Economics) Assessment of the Economic Effects of Direct Financial
Influx on Sudanese Capital Account by Using Autoregressive Integrated Moving
Averages-ARIMA (1980-2010). Abdel Fatah Tag Alsir, Alneelain University (2010). 

(Master Degree in Economics) The Effect of Investment Environment on the Agricultural
Sector of the Sudan. Alsir Mohamed Hussein Ali, Alneelain University (2008). 

(Master Degree in Economics) The Effect of Murabaha Formulae on the Efficiency of
Financing Economic Development in Sudan. Case Study of Tadamun Islamic Bank (2000-2009)
Mamoto Dembli, Al Neelain University, (2010). 

(Master Degree in Economics) The Socioeconomic Effects of Globalization on Poor
Developing Countries; Case Study of Sudan. Hashi Hussein Abdel Mageed, Al Neelain
University (2010). (Master Degree in Economics) The Effects of Increasing Capital on the
Performance and Efficiency of Banks. Case Study of National and Foreign Financed Banks in
Sudan. Al Alsheik Alsaeed, Al Neelain University (2009). (Master Degree in Economics)
(Master Degree in Economics) The Impact of Energy on Industrial Production in Khartoum
State (1999-2002) Sawsan Gafaar Hassan (2007). (ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) أثر الطاقة
علي الانتاج الصناعي في ولاية الخرطوم (1999-2002) سوسن جعفر حسن (2007) . (Master Degree in
Economics) The Role of Transborder Trade in Sustaining the Sudanese National Economy.
Nimaat Mohamed Salih. Awarded by Alneelain University. (2005). (ماجستير في العلوم
الاقتصادية) دور تجارة الحدود في دعم الاقتصاد القومي السوداني . نعمات محمد صالح محمد محمود
(2005) . (Master Degree in Economics) Using Dynamic Models for Inducing the Sudanese
National Economy. Jihad Ibrahim Ahmed. Awarded by Alneelain University (2006). (ماجستير
في العلوم الاقتصادية) نماذج حركية لتقدير أثر الاستثمار الأجنبي والوطني على تحفيز الاقتصاد
السوداني بحث لنيل درجة الماجستير في الاقتصاد . جهاد إبراهيم أحمد إبراهيم (2006) . (Master
Degree in Economics) Analysis of Variables Affecting Wheat Production Function in the
Sudan (1970-1999) Makki Hassan Mohamed Salih (2006). (ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) تحليل
للعوامل المؤثرة في دالة انتاج القمح في السودان (1970-1999) مكي حسن اسماعيل صالح (2006) .
(Master Degree in Economics) The Impacts of Money Supply on Income and Prices in the
Sudan (1992-2002). Abubeker Abdalla Omer. Awarded by Alneelain University (2005).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) أثر عرض النقود علي الدخل والأسعار في السودان (1992-2002) .
أبو بكر عبد الله عمر (2005) . (Master Degree in Economics) The Economic Role of Nile
River’s Water and Contribution on Achieving Economic Development in the Sudan. Mohamed
Abdel Fadeel Al Sunni. Awarded by Alneelain University (2005). (ماجستير في العلوم
الاقتصادية) دور مياه النيل ومساهمتها في تحقيق التنمية الاقتصادية في السودان . محمد عبد
الفضيل السني (2005) . (Master Degree in Economics) The Impacts of Water Pollution on
Economic Development. Case Study: the Sudanese-Japanese Weaving Factory. Taisir Mubashar
Awarded by Alneelain University (2005). (ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) أثر تلوث المياه
علي التنمية الاقتصادية : دراسة حالة مصنع النسيج الياباني . تيسير مبشر (2005) . (Master
Degree in Economics) The Impacts of the Internal Migration on the Economic Development:
Analysis of Migration from the Northern State to the Capital Khartoum. Amani Mohamed
Yasin. Awarded by Alneelain University (2004) (ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) أثر الهجرة
الداخلية علي التنمية الاقتصادية في السودان . دراسة حالة الهجرة من الولاية الشمالية إلي
الخرطوم (2004) . أماني محمد يسن . (Master Degree in Economics) The Economic Impacts of
Tax Exemptions on Investments in the Sudan. Hafez Ibrahim Ahmed. Awarded by Alneelain
University (2004). (ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) الأثر الاقتصادي للإعفاءات الجمركية علي
الاستثمار في السودان . حافظ إبراهيم أحمد محمد (2004) . (Master Degree in Economics) The
Impacts of Macroeconomic Variables on the Exports of Live and Slaughtered Livestock of
the Sudan. Hanadi Abbas Karoum. Awarded by Alneelain University (2005). (ماجستير في
العلوم الاقتصادية) أثر عوامل الاقتصاد الكلي علي صادرات الماشية الحية واللحوم المذبوحة في
السودان . هنادي عباس عمر كروم (2005) . (Master Degree in Economics) The Impacts of
Globalization on Developing Countries: Case Study of the Sudanese Agricultural Sector.
Ahmed Mohamed Omar. Awarded by Alneelain University (2004). (ماجستير في العلوم
الاقتصادية) أثر العولمة علي الدول النامية : دراسة حالة القطاع الزراعي السوداني . أحمد
محمد عمر عثمان (2004) . (Master Degree in Economics) The Impact of Financing on the
Agricultural Production in the Sudan. Ibrahim Bakheet Awarded by Alneelain University
(2003). (ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) أثر التمويل علي الإنتاج الزراعي في السودان (2003)
. إبراهيم محمد بخيت . (Master Degree in Economics) The Economic Impacts of Methods of
Harvesting on Agricultural Production: Case Study of Gedarif. Tarig El Sir Yousif
ELkrail. Awarded by Alneelain University (2003). (ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) الأثر
الاقتصادي لأساليب الحصاد علي الإنتاج الزراعي: دراسة حالة المشاريع الزراعية في القضارف
(2003) . طارق السر الكريل . (Master Degree in Economics) An Econometric Model for the
Analysis of Financing in the Bawga Agricultural Project in the Nile State, Northern
Sudan. Saad Abdallah Sid Ahmed. Awarded by Alneelain University (2003). (ماجستير في
العلوم الاقتصادية) نموذج قياسي لتحليل أثر التمويل في مشروع الباوجة الزراعي بولاية نهر
النيل شمال السودان (2003) . سعد عبد الله سيد أحمد . (Master Degree in Economics) Analysis
of Selected Regions’ Projects and their Impacts on Sustainable Human Development. The
Case of Lower Atbara River’s Project. Khalid Alamin Mohamed Salih. Awarded by Alneelain
University (2002). (ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) تحليل لأثر مشاريع المناطق المختارة علي
التنمية البشرية المستدامة : دراسة حالة مشاريع أدني نهر عطبرة . خالد الأمين محمد (2002) .
(Master Degree in Economics) Problems of the Industrial Sector of the Sudan. Study Case
of the Industrial Area of Omdurman. Saeed Mohamed Ali Basheer. Awarded by Alneelain
University (2002). (ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) تحليل اقتصادي لمشاكل القطاع الصناعي في
السودان . دراسة حالة المنطقة الصناعية في أمدرمان . سعيد محمد علي بشير (2002) . (Master
Degree in Economics) An Economic Evaluation of Water Use in Scarcity Regions: Study Case
of the Development and Utilization of Water Resources in Southern Darfur, Sudan. Ayat
Abobakr Mohamed. Awarded by Alneelain University (2002). (ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية)
تقييم اقتصادي لاستخدام المياه في أقاليم الندرة . دراسة حالة تنمية واستغلال مصادر المياه
في جنوب دارفور في السودان . آيات أبوبكر محمد (2002) . (Master Degree in Economics) The
Rationale and Alleviations behind the Immigration of University Lecturers of the Sudan.
Nagwa Mohamed Alhag Ibrahim. Awarded by Alneelain University (2002). (ماجستير في العلوم
الاقتصادية) تحليل اقتصادي وحلول لأسباب هجرة أساتذة الجامعات السودانية . نجوي محمد الحاج
إبراهيم (2002) . 

(Master Degree in Economics) An Econometric Model for the Inflation Phenomenon in the
Sudan (1990-2000). Yasir Altoum Mohamed. Awarded by Alneelain University (2002). (ماجستير
في العلوم الاقتصادية) نموذج قياسي لظاهرة التضخم في السودان (1990-2000) ياسر التوم محمد
(2002) . 

(Master Degree in Economics) The Indications and Limitations of the Brain Drain of the
Sudan: Study on the Case of the Sudanese University Professors. Nawaal Farrag Altaieb.
Awarded by Alneelain University (2002). (ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) مؤشرات ومحددات
نزيف العقول في السودان . دراسة حالة أساتذة الجامعات السودانية . نوال فراج الطيب (2002) . 

(Master Degree in Economics) The Arab Food Security under National and International
Conditions. Hassan Abdal Azeem Qurashi. Awarded by Alneelain University (2001). (ماجستير
في العلوم الاقتصادية) الأمن الغذائي العربي تحت الظروف القومية والعالمية (2001) . حسن عبد
العظيم القرشي . 

(Master Degree in Economics) Arab Investment in the Sudan. Case Study of the Arab Fund
for Agricultural and Animal Production Projects. Nadia Ali Ahamed. Awarded by Alneelain
University (2001). (ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) تحليل لأثر الاستثمار العربي في السودان
: دراسة حالة لمشاريع الشركة العربية للاستثمار الزراعي والحيواني . نادية علي أحمد (2001) . 

III. Supervised Master’s Degrees in Statistics (Master Degree in Statistics) Using Lagged
Models in Investment Function of the Sudan: Application of Almon Method on the Period
1980-1999. Thawra Mohamed Eisa Algadal (2008). تطبيق نماذج الابطاء علي دالة الاستثمار في
السودان باستخدام طريقة ألمون في الفترة 1980-1999. ثورة محمد عيسي الجدال (2008) . (Master
Degree in Statistics) The Impacts of Expenditure Rates on Insurance Privileges on the
Financial Balance of the National Fund for Social Insurance. Sumaiaa Mahjob Mohamed.
Awarded by Alneelain University (2004). (ماجستير في الإحصاء) أثر معدلات الإنفاق علي
المزايا الاجتماعية علي التوازن المالي للصندوق القومي للتأمين الاجتماعي . سمية محجوب محمد
(2004) . (Master Degree in Statistics) Time Series Based Econometric Model for Estimating
and Forecasting Electricity Consumption in the Sudan. Amir Hussein Hamad. Awarded by
Alneelain University (2003). (ماجستير في الإحصاء) نموذج قياسي للتقدير والتنبؤ باستهلاك
التيار الكهربائي في السودان. أمير حسين حمد (2003) . (Master Degree in Statistics) Time
Series Analysis of the Relationships between Malaria Infections and Some Demographic and
Climate in the Sudan. Awatif Mohamed Alnour. Awarded by Alneelain University (2003).
(ماجستير الإحصاء) تحليل السلاسل الزمنية لعلاقة الإصابة بالملاريا مع بعض العوامل المناخية
والديموغرافية في السودان . عواطف محمد النور (2003) . (Master Degree in Statistics) The
Application of Time Series Analysis on the Assessment of the Impacts of Exports Livestock
on Gross Domestic Production of the Sudan. Haroon Adam Mohamed. Awarded by Alneelain
University (2003). (ماجستير في الإحصاء) استخدام تحليل السلاسل الزمنية في تقدير أثر صادرات
اللحوم علي إجمالي الدخل القومي في السودان . هارون آدم محمد (2003) . (Master Degree in
Statistics) The Utilization of Time Series Data in Econometric Models for Estimating
Direct Taxation Revenues in the Sudan (1980-2000). Hanan Hassan Saeed Abdalla. Awarded by
Alneelain University (2003). (ماجستير في الإحصاء) تقدير الإيرادات الضريبية المباشرة
باستخدام النماذج الاقتصادية القياسية خلال الفترة من (1980-2000م) . حنان حسن سعيد عبد الله
. (Master Degree in Statistics) The Application of Time Series Analysis on the Estimation
of the Demand on Electricity in Khartoum State. Ahmed Rifaat Adawi. Awarded by Alneelain
University (2003). (ماجستير في الإحصاء) استخدام السلاسل الزمنية في تقدير الطلب علي
الكهرباء في ولاية الخرطوم (2003) أحمد رفعت عدوي . (Master Degree in Statistics)
Statistical Analysis of the Effects Awareness on AIDS’ Incidents in Sudanese
Universities. Khalid Abdel Hamed. Awarded by Alneelain University (2003). (ماجستير في
الإحصاء) تحليل إحصائي لأثر الوعي علي حدوث حالات مرض فقد المناعة المكتسبة في الجامعات
السودانية . خالد عبد الحميد (2003) . (Master Degree in Statistics) The Application of
Weighted Least Square Models in the Analysis of Socioeconomic Data of Yemeni Students to
Estimate Achievement Levels in Sudanese Universities. Fahmi Mohamed Ahmed. Awarded by
Alneelain University (2003). (ماجستير في الإحصاء) استخدام النماذج المرجحة للمربعات الصغرى
في تحليل أثر العوامل الاقتصادية والاجتماعية للطلاب اليمنيين علي مستوي أدائهم في الجامعات
السودانية (2003) . فهمي محمد أحمد . (Master Degree in Statistics) Utilizing Time Series
Models to Forecast Total Consumption in the Sudan (1960-1998). Amira Ahmed Osman. Awarded
by Alneelain University (2002). استخدام نماذج السلاسل الزمنية في التنبؤ بالاستهلاك الكلي
في السودان (1960-1998) أميرة أحمد عثمان (2002) . (Master Degree in Statistics) Estimating
the Domestic Demand of Pharmaceutical Products in the Sudan. Saida Awad Ali. Awarded by
Alneelain University (2002). (ماجستير في الإحصاء) تقدير الطلب المحلي علي المنتجات
الصيدلانية في السودان . سيدة عوض علي (2002) . (Master Degree in Statistics) An
Econometric Analysis of the Effects of Crops’ Prices on Cultivated Areas in the Sudan.
Manal Mohamed Alzabier Taha. Awarded by Alneelain University (2001). نموذج قياسي لتحليل
أثر أسعار المحاصيل علي المساحات المزروعة في السودان (2001) منال محمد الزبير طه .
Supervised Master’s Degrees in Business Administration 1- (Master Degree in Business
Management) The Participation of the Private Sector the in Infrastructure Projects of the
Sudan. The Case Study of Sudatel. Omyima Mahgoub Abdel Alraheem. Awarded by Al Azhari
University (2002). (ماجستير إدارة أعمال) أثر مشاركة القطاع الخاص في مشاريع البنية
الأساسية في السودان . أميمة محجوب عبد الرحمن (2003) . Supervised Master’s Degrees in
Sociology (Msc. in Sociology) The Reciprocal Impacts of Economic Development and Social
Value on Developing Rural Societies. Case Study of Abidia and El Goul Villages of the
Nile State, Sudan. Elias Saied. Awarded by Alneelain University (2003). التأثير المتبادل
بين التنمية الاقتصادية والقيم الاجتماعية علي المجتمعات الريفية النامية . دراسة حالة قريتي
العبيدية والجول في ولاية نهر النيل . إلياس سعيد (2003) . 

Supervised Doctoral Degrees in Economics (PhD in Economics) Econometric Analysis for the
Impacts of Islamic and Arabic Economic Blocs VS. Globalization and International Trade
Agreements. Mohamed Ahmed Osman, al Neelain University (2011). (PhD in Economics) The
Role of Federal Subsidies in Economic Development in the Northern State of Sudan
(2000-2007). Osama Muawia Bakheit, University of Dongola (2010). (PhD in Economics)
Analysis of Economic Development Trends in the Republic of Yemen (1995-2005) Abdel Kareem
Salih, Al Neelain University (2011). Economic Analysis of the Sudanese Financial Markets
(1980-2009). Al Muaataz Osman Ibrahim, Al Neelain University (2010). (PhD in Economics)
The Role of the Banking Institutions in Savings and Effects on Economic Development in
Sudan. Ahmed Mohamed Abdel Rahman. (2009). (PhD in Economics) The Impact of Foreign
Direct Investments on Economic Growth in Sudan (1982-2007) Magdi Alamin Norin Idom, Al
Neelain University (2009). (PhD in Economics) Economic Analysis of the Role of Sudanese
Banks in Financing External Trades. Mohamed Ahmed Banaga (2008) تحليل اقتصادي لدور
المصارف السودانية في تمويل التجارة الخارجية . محمد أحمد بانجا (2008) . (PhD in Economics)
The Impacts of Investment in Human Capital on Economic Development in the Sudan. Maimona
Abdel Raheem Mohamed. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies,
Alneelain University (2008). (PhD in Economics) The Impacts of Globalization on Sudanese
Banks Efficiency. Alsidik Yousif Mohamed Musa. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social
and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2008). أثر العولمة علي الأداء والكفاءة
الاقتصادية في المصارف السودانية . الصديق يوسف محمد موسي (2007) . (PhD in Economics) The
Impacts of Privatization of Public Enterprises on Efficiency. Hassan Mohamed Bashir.
Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University
(2008). (PhD in Economics) The Impacts of Foreign Investment in the Mining Sector on the
Sudanese Economy: Case Study of the Ariab Gold Company. Halima Younis Abbas. Awarded by
the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2006). أثر
الاستثمار الأجنبي في قطاع التعدين علي الاقتصاد السوداني : دراسة حالة شركة أرياب للذهب .
حليمة يونس عباس (2006) . (PhD in Economics) The Impacts of Cash Outflow from the Banking
Sector in the Sudan (1972-2001) Ahmed Suliman Ahmed. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce,
Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2006). أثر التدفقات النقدية من الجهاز
المصرفي علي متغيرات الاقتصاد الكلي (1972-2001) . أحمد سليمان أحمد (2006) . (PhD in
Economics) An Analysis of the Socioeconomic Impacts of Governmental Measures to Minimize
Costs of Living for Sudanese Labor-force. Abdel Gadir Saad. Awarded by the Faculty of
Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2006). (دكتوراه في الاقتصاد)
دراسة تحليلية لأثر السياسات الحكومية علي تخفيف أعباء المعيشة لعمال السودان . عبد القادر
سعد (2006) . (PhD in Economics) A Study of the Conception and Econometric Measurements of
Human Development in the Sudan. Rasheeda Mohamed Aldoash. Awarded by the Faculty of
Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2006). (دكتوراه في الاقتصاد)
دراسة في مفهوم وقياس التنمية البشرية في السودان . رشيدة محمد الدوش (2006) . (PhD in
Economics) The Impacts of the Administrative Structure on the Economic Performance of
Sudanese Banks. Abdel Rahman Suliman. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and
Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2006). (دكتوراه في الاقتصاد) أثر الهيكل الإداري
علي الأداء الاقتصادي للمصارف السودانية . عبد الرحمن سليمان (2006) . (PhD in Economics)
Economics of Water Use in Rural Semi-Arid Regions Environment: A Darfur Case Study. Ayat
Abu Bakr Mohamed. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies,
Alneelain University (2006). (دكتوراه في الاقتصاد) اقتصاديات استخدام المياه في المناطق
الريفية الجافة : دراسة حالة دارفور . آيات أبو بكر محمد (2006) . (PhD in Economics) An
Econometric Analysis of the Impacts of the Formal and Informal Financial Sectors of the
Agricultural Productivity in the Sudan. Saad Abdalla Said Ahmed. Awarded by the Faculty
of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2006). تحليل قياسي لأثر
التمويل الرسمي وغير الرسمي علي الإنتاج الزراعي في السودان . سعد عبد الله سيد أحمد (2006)
. (PhD in Economics) Child Well-being in Urban Development Context: The Case of Khartoum
State, Sudan. Regional Multi Level Policy Oriented Analytical Study. Yasir Awad Elkarim
Elmubarak Ali. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain
University (2005). (دكتوراه في الاقتصاد) رفاهية الطفل والتنمية الحضرية : دراسة تحليلية
متعددة المستويات لولاية الخرطوم . ياسر عبد الكريم مبارك علي (2005) . (PhD in Economics)
The Impacts of Railways Transportation on the Economic Growth of the Sudan. Abdel Rahman
Fahmi. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain
University (2005). أثر نقل السكك الحديدية علي التنمية الاقتصادية في السودان . عبد الرحمن
فهمي (2005) . (PhD in Economics) Macroeconomic Reforms and Structural Adjustments in the
Sudan: An Empirical Analysis (1960-1998). Awad Mohamed Khair. Awarded by the Faculty of
Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2003). تحليل لأثر الإصلاح
والتكيف علي عوامل الاقتصاد الكلي في السودان (1960-1998) . عوض محمد خير (2003) . (PhD in
Economics) An Economic Analysis of Faba Bean Cultivation and Production in the Sudan.
Idris Mohamed Ahmed Hamid. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic
Studies, Alneelain University (2005). (PhD in Economics) The Impact of Economic Cycle
Magnitude on Income and Employment in the Sudan (1970-2000). Yassin Ibrahim El Tahir.
Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University
(2004). أثر الدورات الاقتصادية علي الدخل ومعدلات العمالة في السودان . ياسين إبراهيم
الطاهر (2004) . (PhD in Economics) An Econometric Analysis of the Impact of Foreign
Capital Inflows and Economic Development in the Sudan. Adam Ahmed Sabeel. Awarded by the
Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2001). تحليل
قياسي لأثر تدفقات رؤوس الأموال الأجنبية علي التنمية الاقتصادية في السودان . آدم أحمد سبيل
(2002) . (PhD in Economics) An analysis of the Labor Unions with Special Reference on the
Experience of Sudanese Labor force (1992-1999). Abdel Gadir Ahmed Saeed. Awarded by the
Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2003). 

Supervised Doctoral Degrees in Statistics 1. (PhD in Statistics) The Application of
System Dynamics Modeling on Macroeconomic Factors of the Yemeni Economy. Fahmi Mohamed
Ali. Awarded by the Faculty of Mathemtics Technology, Alneelain University (2008).
(دكتوراه في الإحصاء) استخدام نماذج النظم الديناميكية في تحليل متغيرات الاقتصاد الكلي
لليمن . فهمي محمد علي (2008) . 2. (PhD in Statistics) Application of the Bayesian Models
in Analyzing Child Labor in Yemen. Ismael Mohamed Ahmed. Awarded by the Faculty of
Mathematics Technology, Alneelain University (2008). (دكتوراه في الإحصاء) تطبيق النماذج
البايزية في تحليل ظاهرة عمالة الأطفال في اليمن . اسماعيل محمد أحمد (2008) . 3. (PhD in
Statistics) The Application of Non-linear Models in the Estimation of the Function of the
Sudanese Economy by Utilizing the Principle Components Analysis. Hamza Ibrahim Hamza.
Awarded by the Faculty of Science, Sudan University for Technology (2005). (دكتوراه في
الإحصاء) تطبيق النماذج اللاخطية في تقدير دالة الاقتصاد القومي السوداني باستخدام تحليل
العوامل الرئيسية . حمزة إبراهيم حمزة (2006) . 4. (PhD Statistics) An Appraisal of the
Education Statistical System of the Sudan. Abbas Ali Aamir. Awarded by the Faculty of
Mathematics Technology, Alneelain University (2004). (دكتوراه في الإحصاء) تحليل للنظم
الإحصائية لبيانات التعليم في السودان عباس علي عامر (2004) . 

Supervised Doctoral Degrees in Agricultural Economics (PhD in Agricultural Economics and
Development) The Impacts of Water Borne Diseases on Economic Activities and Development:
Study of the Gezira Scheme of Sudan. Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Alneelain
University (2008). 2- (PhD in Agricultural Economics and Development) An Analysis of
Vegetable and Fruits Marketing in the Sudan: Field Survey of Greater Khartoum Major
Markets. Howida Hassan Alshafie. Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Alneelain University
(2008). 

Supervised Master Degrees in Agricultural Economics (Msc. Regional Planning and
Development) The Impacts of Regional Planning on Agricultural and Industrial Development:
Case Study of the Western Jamahiria Arabia Allibyia. Faculty of Agricultural Technology,
Alneelain University (2008). Supervised Master Degrees in Disaster Management and
Refugees Studies The Impacts of the Social Structure on the Transformation of the
Sudanese Civil Societal Institutions: Case Study of Khartoum State. Abdallah Mohamed
Suliman (2008). Supervised PhD Degrees in Disaster Management and Refugees Studies (PhD,
Disaster Management and Refugees Studies: Conflict Resolution) The Impacts of the Social
Structure on the Transformation of the Sudanese Civil Societal Institutions: Case Study
of Khartoum State. Abdallah Mohamed Suliman. (2011). (PhD, Disaster Management and
Refugees Studies: Conflict Resolution) 

Professional Memberships Member of the Japanese Association for Agricultural Economics
since 1990. Member of the Japan Academy of Economic Sciences: since 1992. عضو في
الأكاديمية اليابانية للعلوم الاقتصادية منذ العام 1992 Member of the Kansai Economists’
Society since 1992. عضو في جمعية كانساي للاقتصاديين – اليابان منذ العام 1992 . Member of
the Nile-Ethiopian Society of Japan: since 1993. عضو في الجمعية العلمية للنيل الإثيوبي في
اليابان منذ العام 1993 . Member of the Chubu Association for Agricultural Economics:
since 1991. The Japanese Society of Crop Science since 1994. Languages Arabic (Mother
Language). English, fluently writing, reading, hearing and speaking. French, moderately
speaking and hearing. Easily reading and writing. Japanese, fluently speaking and
hearing. Moderately reading and writing. 

Major Attended Conferences & Contributions The 2nd Nilo-Ethiopian Conference.
October-Nagoya, Japan. (1993) Contributed paper: Comprehensive Sustainable Development
Strategies of Marginal Regions: the Integration of Proximate Rainfed Lands and Riverain
Agricultural Development in the Sudan. The XXI IAAE, International Association of
Agricultural Economists Conference. Tokyo, August (1991) Contributed Paper: Changes of
Agricultural Structure in the Sahel and its Implications of Drought and Famine. 

Community and Volunteer Activities Co-founder of the Japan-Sudan Society, which is
concerned about aiding refugees in Sudan. Mail Address: 3-7-20-703, AOI, Higashiku,
Nagoya 461, JAPAN. Co-founder of the Sennar-Sudan Society (SSS), a foundation mainly
concerned for the: Actively contributing in the rehabilitation of patients of visual
disabilities in poor urban camps around Khartoum and the education of the visually
impaired. Mail Address: 1709 Ebiyama-Cho, Tenpaku-Ku, Nagoya-Japan. A volunteer
coordinator for the International Club of the Blind (ICB) located at Tokyo-Japan mainly
engaged in nominating blind Sudanese students for scholarships in Japan. In addition, I
am teaching Japanese language to young Sudanese Visually Impaired students preparing them
to study at Japan. Mail Address of the society: 20-18 HASUNUMA-Cho, ITABASHI-ku, Tokyo,
JAPAN. An active member of the Trustees’ Board of El Nur Institute (School of the
Visually Impaired Students) and active financial supporter to the institute. The address
of the Institute: Khartoum Bahari, Khartoum-SUDAN. Co-founder of the Japanese-Sudanese
Society of Hitotsubo (A Drop of Hope) for supporting the visually impaired and refugees.
Director and Chief Trustee of the Ghufran Volunteer Organization residing at Sudan and
working in refugees aid and assistance of the grassroots. مدير جمعية الغفران الطوعية
المؤسسة والعاملة في غوث اللاجئين والإمدادات الغذائية لمنكوبي الحروب الأهلية في السودان . 

Major Official Functions Economic Advisor, Council of Ministers-Government of the Sudan.
مستشار في رئاسة مجلس الوزراء : الدائرة الاقتصادية . Member in the Economic Council of the
Center for Future Studies. عضو ومستشار في الدائرة الاقتصادية : مركز دراسات المستقبل
(رئاسة الجمهورية) . Member of the High Technical Economic Committee of the Ministers
Council of the Sudanese Government (HTEC). عضو في اللجنة الفنية الاقتصادية العليا لمجلس
الوزراء ، حكومة السودان . Member of the High Technical Exhibition Committee for
Re-establishing the Sudan International Exhibitions' Agency of the Ministers Council
of the Sudanese Government (HTEC). عضو في اللجنة الفنية المشكلة لتأسيس وكالة المعارض
الدولية السودانية المشكلة من مجلس الوزراء ، حكومة السودان . Member of the Special
Integral Wealth Distribution Economic Committee of the Council of Ministers of the
Government of the Sudan. عضو في اللجنة العليا الاقتصادية الخاصة بعدالة توزيع الثروة لمجلس
الوزراء ، حكومة السودان . Member of the Special Committee for Developing the Tourism
Sector of the Sudan of the Council of Ministers of the Government of the Sudan. عضو في
لجنة تطوير قطاع السياحة في السودان المشكلة بقرار مجلس الوزراء ، حكومة السودان . Member of
the Special National Task Force for National Information and Indices of the Council of
Ministers of the Government of the Sudan. عضو فريق العمل الوطني للمعلومات القومية
والمؤشرات المشكل بقرار مجلس الوزراء حكومة السودان . Member of the Special National Task
Force for National Information Assessment and Evaluation of the Council of Ministers of
the Government of the Sudan. عضو فريق العمل الوطني لتقويم وقياس المعلومات القومية المشكل
بقرار مجلس الوزراء حكومة السودان . 

عضو الأمانة العامة للمجلس القومي للتخطيط الاستراتيجي (وزارة مجلس الوزراء) لجنة القطاع
الاقتصادي . Member of the General Secretariat for Strategic Planning (Ministry of the
Council Ministers) Committee for the Economic Sector. 

References Professor Ibrahim Al Amin Hajer, Faculty of Science, Alneelain Univesity.
Professor Yoji TAKEOKA, Graduate School for Bio-agricultural Sciences. CHIKUSA, 461-01:
Nagoya University, Nagoya-Japan. Professor Shin-ei KASUGAI, Faculty of Commerce and
Economics. Tokai University, Aichi Ken-Japan. 

Challenges of Social Security Systems in Sudan

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Economic Papers Online, Econpaper (2011)

Those are economic papers online on the pages of Econpaper by Issam AW Mohamed

 

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Analysis of HIV/AIDS Incidents in Sudan with Reference to Khartoum State, Institutions and Transition Economics Political Economy Journal (2011)

The present paper introduces results of an analysis conducted on data collected from Khartoum state...

 

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Economic Perspectives of Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Technology Transfer and Rural Water Use in darfur, Middle East Studies Journal (2011)

Civil strife, human sufferings are the signs pronounced by international media. There are political ramifications...

 

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Articles of Interest: Religion Clause (2011)

The present article was quoted and presented at Howard Friedman's Blog, Professor Emeritus of Law...

 

The Impacts of Social Justice and Income Distribution in Sudan

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Effects of the Humanitarian Aid, Internal Displacement on the Social Impacts in Sudan, Immigration, Refugee & Citizenship Law Journal (2011)

The study presented here reviews activities of NGOs in Sudan by surveying and studying the...

 

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Thieves or Doctors, Armed Civil Conflicts in Darfur and Impacts on Education in Refugees Camps, Labor, Demographics and Economics of the Family Journal (2011)

The study presented here depends on a field survey of refugees' camps in war strived...

 

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The Crisis of a Nation (1), National Security and Foreign Relations Law Journal (2011)

This is the first part of a book I started writing in the year 2008...

 

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Empowerment, Corruption and Economic Chaos in Sudan, Institutions and Transition Economics Political Economy Journal (2011)

In a country on the eve of losing one third of its land, 80% of...

 

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Pillars of Demise: Empowerment and Corruption, Economic Chaos and Political Disintegration in Sudan, Institutions and Transition Economics Political Economy Journal (2011)

In a country on the eve of losing one third of its land, 80% of...

 

Economic Papers Online with Econpaper Pages

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Economic Papers Online, Econpaper (2011)

Those are economic papers online on the pages of Econpaper by Issam AW Mohamed

 

Economics of Water Use

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Economics of Water Use for Commodity Production in Scarcity Arid Regions: Kutum, Darfur, Middle East Studies Journal (2011)

The paper investigates water use in a rural village in semi-arid of Darfur region. Water...

 

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Water Use for Commodity Production in Scarcity Arid Regions: Kutum, Darfur, Development Economics Journal (2011)

This paper investigates water use in a rural village in semi-arid of Darfur region. Water...

 

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Optimization of hydroelectric power generation, case study of Roseires Dam in Sudan, Munich University Liberary, Germany (2011)

Water reservoirs are large pools of water created stream or river catchment's areas and torrential...

 

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The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan, Munich University Liberary, Germany (2010)

Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is...

 

Agricultural Economics and Natural Resources

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Study of the Economic Impacts of Bilharzias in Gezira Irrigated Agricultural Scheme: Water Borne Diseases and Economic Viability (2012)

The study is on the infestation of Bilharzia epidemic in the Gezira Agricultural Scheme of...

 

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Review of the Role of Agriculture in Sudan Economy, Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics Journal. Vol. 3, Issue 128, August 04, 2011 (2011)

The calamities of Sudan expand on daily basis. The secession of Southern Sudan has deprived...

 

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Water Borne Diseases and Rural Development in Sudan Study of Malaria in Gezira Irrigated Agricultural Scheme, Economic Impacts of Water Born Diseases in Africa (2008)

Gezira irrigated scheme is globally one of the biggest agricultural productive units administratively managed. It...

 

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Institutional Changes and Discretionary Value for Property Rights in Drylands’ Farming of the Sudan, Nile Basin Research Journal, Alneelain University. Khartoum, Sudan (1999)

Research on land tenure and use control and the socioeconomic sets of regulations in the...

 

Global Financial Crisis and Effects on the Agricultural Sector of Sudan

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Global Financial Crisis and Effects on the Agricultural Sector of Sudan, Macroeconomics, Monetary and Fiscal Policies Journal (2011)

The severe impacts of the global financial crisis had effects on all world. However, in...

 

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The Impacts of International Trade and Hegemony on Islamic and Arabic Countries (2010)

The current book introduce an analysis on trade impediments and structural deformities that shape current...

 

Impacts of Macroeconomic Policies on the Economic Sectors

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Impacts of Money Supply on Income and Prices in the Sudan: Impacts of Monetary Policies on the Performance of the Sudan (2012)

Monetary policies are very important in any economy. However, they are dominantly hectic and characterized...

 

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Multinational Companies and Investments in Sudan: Case Study of Oil Exploration and Extraction (2011)

The purpose of this paper is to present the role of multinational companies in general...

 

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Impacts of Formal Financing on the Development of the Sudanese Agricultural Sector, Political Economy Development Journal (2011)

The agricultural sector of Sudan is faced by many problems. In the irrigated schemes, the...

 

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African Economic Blocs and Trade: Case Study of Comesa and Sudan, International Trade Journal (2011)

Comprehensively, Economic Trade Partnerships and Blocs are important to a member country. However, with the...

 

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Impacts of Sudan Macroeconomic Policy on Agriculture, International Trade Journal (2011)

The crisis of Southern Sudan and eminent secession in 9 July 2011 is a nightmare...

 

Social Conflict and Civil Strive

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Impacts of Social Upbringing on Family Integration in Military Life in Sudan, Labor, Demographics and Economics of the Family Journal (2011)

In a country on the eve of losing one third of its land, 80% of...

 

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REVIEW OF SOMALIA, GREED, COLONIZATION AND SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS, Munich University Liberary, Germany (2011)

In a country that lost all feasible authorities for over twenty years economic future seems...

 

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The International Society and the Sudanese National Disintegration (2010)

The political crisis of Sudan is amplified everyday with the expansion of civil conflict from...

 

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The Janjaweed, the Armed Movements and the Political Disintegration of Sudan, Law, Institutions and Development Journal, Vol. 9, Issue 29, July 19, 2010 (2010)

The present paper is part of unpublished book divided into three interrelated manuscripts that analyze...

 

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The Social Infrastructure and the Civil Institutions in Sudan (2010)

Contemporary Sudanese society endures many hardships which are manifested in economic retraction, inflation, recession and...

 

International Trade

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WTO-Doha Multilateral Trade Negotiations and Agriculture, International Trade Journal Vol. 3, Issue 131, July 21, 2011 (2011)

The Doha Development Round or Doha Development Agenda (DDA) is the current trade-negotiation round of...

 

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An Overview of Economic Patterns of Partnerships between Developing and Rich Countries with Special Reference to USA and Sudan, International Trade Journal (2011)

The current paper presents unique approach to economic analysis where the theoretical framework applied here...

 

Economics and Hegemony; Globalization and International Trade Agreements, Economics and Hegemony; Globalization and International Trade Agreements (2011)

This paper examines the concept of hegemony and its historical impacts on the Arabic and...

 

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Economic Crisis and External Trade in Sudan (2010)

Nowadays, Sudan suffers severe financial crisis with the eminent demise of 75% of its oil...

 

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Rogue Counrty and Potential Cooperation: the United States and Sudan and Feasible Economic Partnership (2009)

The United States declared Sudan as a rogue country in 1995 due to many political...

 

Books

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International Trade, Structural Deformations and Hegemony in Islamic and Arabic Countries (2010)

Contemporary world economic situation seems gloomy with the shadows of recession in many big economies....

 

Resaerch Methods

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Advanced Research Methods: Introduction and Detailed Research Methodologies (2011)

The book presents introduction and detailed scientific research methods. Written in Arabic it should give...

 

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Introduction to Research Methodologies (2007)

In this book, I introduce basics of research methodologies in Arabic language which I believe...

 

No subject area

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Assessment of Capital Returns and Economics of Investment in Khartoum Stock Exchange Market (2006)

Financial markets in a country are parts of modern economic systems and have definite impacts...