Life History and Description of Immature Stages of Aciurina thoracica (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Baccharis sarothroides in Southern California
This article is the copyright property of the Entomological Society of America and may not be used for any commercial or other private purpose without specific written permission of the Entomological Society of America.
NOTE: At the time of publication, the author David Headrick was not yet affiliated with Cal Poly.
Aciurina thoracica Curran forms galls on branches of at least three species of Baccharis in southern California. The egg, second and third instars, and puparium obtained from B. sarothroides Gray are described and illustrated. Aciurina thoracica's median oral lobe is described and illustrated. The egg is inserted singly into branch tips of B. sarothroides in early spring. Gall and larval growth continue through summer and fall, and pupariation occurs in early winter. Adults emerge in late winter or early spring, mate, and oviposit into newly forming branch tips. Adult behavior including courtship and copulation is described and compared with other Aciurina species. Principal hymenopterous natural enemies of A. thoracica include two solitary, primary endoparasitoids, Dinarmus sp. (Pteromalidae) and Eurytoma sp. (Eurytomidae); two solitary primary ectoparasitoids, Pteromalus sp. and Mesopolobus sp. (Pteromalidae); and Eupelmus spp. (Eupelmidae) reared as solitary, primary endo- and ectoparasitoids.
David H. Headrick and Richard D. Goeden. "Life History and Description of Immature Stages of Aciurina thoracica (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Baccharis sarothroides in Southern California" Annals of the Entomological Society of America 86.1 (1993): 68-79.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/dheadric/2