RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in coronavirus- infected cells.
An enzymatic activity which incorporates [3H]UMP into acid-precipitable material in the presence of endogenous template was found in the cytoplasm of porcine cells infected with the transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine. This activity was not found in uninfected control cells, nor was it found in purified virus. The activity was associated with the mitochondrial fraction of infected cells, suggesting that the enzyme is membrane bound. The activity required the presence of all three ribonucleoside triphosphates in addition to [3H]UTP, and it was not inhibited by actinomycin D. The heated product was digested by RNase but not by DNase. Mg2+ was required for enzymatic activity, and its optimal concentration was approximately 5 mM. The size of the in vitro products was compared by electrophoresis with that of in vivo-synthesized virus-specified RNA to confirm the viral specificity of the polymerase activity. Virus-specified RNA from infected cells consisted of 10 species of single-stranded, polyadenylated RNA with molecular weights of 6.8 X 10(6), 6.2 X 10(6), 3.15 X 10(6), 1.40 X 10(6), 1.05 X 10(6), 0.94 X 10(6), 0.66 X 10(6), 0.39 X 10(6), 0.34 X 10(6), and 0.24 X 10(6). In vitro synthesized RNA consisted of a high-molecular-weight species, of apparently higher molecular weight than genomic RNA, and two single-stranded species that electrophoretically comigrated with the species of 1.40 X 10(6) and 0.66 X 10(6) molecular weight made in vivo.
D. E. Dennis and David A. Brian. "RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in coronavirus- infected cells." Journal of Virology 42.1 (1982): 153-164.