Determination of Safe Depth of Pin Penetration for Repair of Distal Femoral Physeal Fractures in Immature Dogs: A Comparison of Normograde and Retrograde Pin Placement
Objective—The purpose of this study was to determine the depth that implants may be safely placed into the distal femoral epiphysis (DFE) for the repair of distal femoral physeal fractures.
Study Design—The depth of the DFE was related to the radiographic thickness of the patella in this experimental study.
Animals or Sample Population—Twenty immature canine cadavers.
Methods—Patella thicknesses were measured from lateral radiographs. Actual DFE depths were determined for pins driven in normograde fashion and for pins driven retrograde from the central depression between the metaphyseal pegs and from the cranial pegs. The association of DFE depth and patella thickness was evaluated using linear regression analysis. Using 95% confidence intervals, rules for estimating the safe depth of implant placement into the DFE were determined.
Results—DFE depth had significant correlation with patella thickness for pins placed in retrograde fashion from the central depression between the metaphyseal pegs (r2= .83) and from the cranial pegs (r2= .82) and for pins placed in normograde fashion (r2= .65).
Conclusions—Based on 95% confidence intervals, pins placed in retrograde fashion from the central depression between the metaphyseal pegs may be safely driven into the DFE a distance equal to 140% of patella thickness. Pins placed from the cranial metaphyseal pegs may be driven to a depth equal to 80% of patella thickness, and pins placed in normograde fashion may be driven to a depth equal to 30% of patella thickness.
Clinical Relevance—Measurement of patella thickness assists the surgeon in determining the approximate depth that pins may be driven into the DFE without penetrating the articular surface of the stifle joint.
Dragan Lorinson, Darryl L. Millis, and Ronald M. Bright. "Determination of Safe Depth of Pin Penetration for Repair of Distal Femoral Physeal Fractures in Immature Dogs: A Comparison of Normograde and Retrograde Pin Placement" Veterinary Surgery 26.6 (1997): 467-471.
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