Another look at the relationship between performance and voluntary turnover
This study reexamined the critical relationship between performance and voluntary turnover. A meta-analysis based on 55 studies and a total sample size of 15,138 supported these conclusions: the negative relationship between performance and turnover is robust and unaffected by unemployment rates and the length of lime between measurements of the two variables. The negative performance turn over relationship was stronger in organizations using performance-contingent rewards, and support was found fur a U-shaped relationship. This study also compared and contrasted three different meta-analytic techniques.
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Chuck R. Williams and L. P. Livingstone. "Another look at the relationship between performance and voluntary turnover" Academy of Management Journal 37.2 (1994): 269-298.