Applied Memory (Eyewitnesses, False Recall)


The need for expert psychological testimony on eyewitness identification (with Roy S. Malpass, Stephen J. Ross, and Jessica L. Marcon), Expert testimony on the psychology of eyewitness identification (2009)


Accuracy of eyewitness descriptions (with Kyle J. Susa), Encyclopedia of Psychology & Law (2008)


A “middle road” approach to bridging the basic-applied divide in eyewitness identification research (with Sean M. Lane), Applied Cognitive Psychology (2008)

Over a century of laboratory research has explored the mechanisms of memory using a variety...



A theoretical and meta-analytic review of the relationship between verbal descriptions and identification accuracy in memory for faces (with Siegfried L. Sporer and Kyle J. Susa), European Journal of Cognitive Psychology (2008)

Verbal descriptions can sometimes impair (or “overshadow”) and other times facilitate subsequent attempts at perceptual...



Training of eyewitnesses (with Roy S. Malpass and Kyle J. Susa), Encyclopedia of Psychology & Law (2008)


Person descriptions as eyewitness evidence (with Siegfried L. Sporer and Jonathan W. Schooler), In R. Lindsay, D. Ross, J. Read, & M. Toglia, (Eds), Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology: Memory for People (pp. 3-34). Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates. (2007)
The phenomenology of carryover effects between showup and lineup identification (with Ryann M. Haw and Jason J. Dickinson), Memory (2007)

This study explored carryover effects from showups to subsequent lineup identifications using a novel paradigm...

Eyewitness decisions in simultaneous and sequential lineups: A dual-process signal detection theory analysis (with Colin G. Tredoux, Janat F. Parker, and Otto H. MacLin), Memory & Cognition (2005)

Many eyewitness researchers have argued for the application of a sequential alternative to the traditional...

Eyewitness memory and identification (with Roy S. Malpass, Laura A. Zimmerman, Stephen J. Ross, Mary E. Rigoni, Lisa D. Topp, Nicole Pruss, Colin G. Tredoux, and Jessica M. Leyva), The San Antonio Defender (2005)
PC_Eyewitness: A computerized framework for the administration and practical application of research in eyewitness psychology (with Otto H. MacLin and Laura A. Zimmerman), Behavior Research Methods (2005)

Eyewitness identification evidence is an important aspect of our legal system. Society relies on witnesses...

Event memory and misinformation effects in a gorilla (with Bennett L. Schwartz, Megan Hoffman, Sian Evans, and Leslie D. Frazier), Animal Cognition (2004)

Event memory and misinformation effects were examined in an adult gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). The...



Eyewitness identification (with Colin G. Tredoux, Roy S. Malpass, and Laura A. Zimmerman), In C. Spielberger’s (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology (pp. 875-887). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. (2004)

An eyewitness’s identification of a perpetrator is a prevalent form of incriminating evidence presented in...

Applied aspects of the instructional bias effect in verbal overshadowing, Applied Cognitive Psychology (2002)

Previous studies have demonstrated that instructional manipulation of a participant witness’s response criterion on a...



Verbal overshadowing: A special issue exploring theoretical and applied issues (with Amina Memon), Applied Cognitive Psychology (2002)

Over a decade of research has investigated the verbal overshadowing effect. This phenomenon, first demonstrated...

A meta-analysis of the verbal overshadowing effect in face identification (with John C. Brigham), Applied Cognitive Psychology (2001)

Recent studies have demonstrated that requesting individuals to produce a verbal description of a previously...

The influence of retrieval processes in verbal overshadowing (with John C. Brigham and Colleen M. Kelley), Memory & Cognition (2001)

Recent studies of eyewitness memory have observed deleterious effects of producing a verbal description on...

Towards a model of false recall: Experimental manipulation of encoding context and the collection of verbal reports (with Kerri A. Goodwin and K. Anders Ericsson), Memory & Cognition (2001)

The likelihood of false recall in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm was shown to depend on...

Disputed eyewitness identification evidence: Important legal and scientific issues (with John C. Brigham and Adina W. Wasserman), Court Review (1999)
Applied issues in the construction and expert assessment of photo lineups (with John C. Brigham and Adina W. Wasserman), Applied Cognitive Psychology (1999)

Issues surrounding lineup fairness have been explored scientifically for over two decades. The present study...


Cross-Racial Person Identification


Modeling the role of social-cognitive processes in the recognition of own- and other-race faces (with Kyle J. Susa and Hendrik de Heer), Social Cognition (2010)

Known as the cross-race effect (CRE), psychological research has consistently shown that people are less...



Perceptual identification and the cross-race effect (with Jessica L. Marcon, Michael Frueh, Kyle J. Susa, and Otto H. MacLin), Visual Cognition (2010)

The current research examined whether the cross-race effect (CRE) was evident in perceptual identification tasks...



Assessing the influence of recollection and familiarity in memory for own- vs. other-race faces (with Jessica L. Marcon and Kyle J. Susa), Psychonomic Bulletin & Review (2009)

The current research examined the contributions of recollection vs. familiarity in memory for own- and...



Cross-racial lineup identification: The potential benefits of context reinstatement (with Jacqueline R. Evans and Jessica L. Marcon), Psychology, Crime, & Law (2009)

The current research examined the potential benefit of context reinstatement on the cross-race effect in...



Cross-race effect in eyewitness identification (with Jessica L. Marcon and Roy S. Malpass), Encyclopedia of Psychology & Law (2008)


Examining the cross-race effect in lineup identification using Caucasian and First Nations samples (with Luke B. Jackiw, Katherine D. Arbuthnott, Jeffrey E. Pfeifer, and Jessica L. Marcon), Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science (2008)

This study examined whether findings from research on the cross-race effect (CRE) in eyewitness memory...



Recognising faces across continents: The effect of within-race variations on the own-race bias in face recognition (with Patrick M. Chiroro, Colin G. Tredoux, and Stephano Radaelli), Psychonomic Bulletin & Review (2008)

People are better at recognising faces of their own-race than faces of other racial groups....



The influence of race on eyewitness memory (with John C. Brigham, L Brooke Bennett, and Tara L. Mitchell), In R. Lindsay, D. Ross, J. Read, & M. Toglia, (Eds), Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology: Memory for People (pp. 257-281). Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates. (2007)
Recognition of faces of ingroup and outgroup children and adults (with Barry Corenblum), Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2006)

People are often more accurate in recognizing faces of ingroup than outgroup members. While own...

Memory for own- and other-race faces: A dual-process approach (with John C. Brigham and David A. Butz), Applied Cognitive Psychology (2005)

The current studies assessed the phenomenological basis of the cross-race effect by examining predictions of...

Thirty years of investigating the own-race bias in memory for faces: A meta-analytic review (with John C. Brigham), Psychology, Public Policy, & Law (2001)

The current paper reviews the own-race bias (ORB) phenomenon in memory for human faces, the...

Social and cognitive factors affecting the own-race bias in Whites (with Ashlyn E. Slone and John C. Brigham), Basic & Applied Social Psychology (2000)

This study investigated factors associated with the commonly found own-race bias in face recognition. We...


Forensic Science


Special issue on forensic science (Part 1) (with Kenneth G. Furton), Canadian Journal of Police & Security Services (2005)


Special issue on forensic science (Part 2) (with Kenneth G. Furton), Canadian Journal of Police & Security Services (2005)

Interviewing, Interrogation, & Credibility Assessment


Minimization and maximization techniques: Assessing the perceived consequences of confessing and confession diagnosticity (with Allyson J. Horgan, Melissa B. Russano, and Jacqueline R. Evans), Psychology, Crime, & Law (2011)

Identifying interrogation strategies that minimize the likelihood of obtaining false information, without compromising the ability...



Modeling the influence of investigator bias on the elicitation of true and false confessions (with Fadia M. Narchet and Melissa B. Russano), Law & Human Behavior (2011)

The aim of this study was to model various social and cognitive processes believed to...



Criminal versus HUMINT interrogations: The importance of psychological science to improving interrogative practice. (with Jacqueline R. Evans, Susan E. Brandon, Melissa B. Russano, and Steven M. Kleinman), Journal of Psychiatry & Law (2010)

The discovery of many cases of wrongful conviction in the criminal justice system involving admissions...



The Cognitive Interview: A meta-analytic review and study space analysis of the past 25 years (with Amina Memon and Joanne Fraser), Psychology, Public Policy, & Law (2010)

The Cognitive Interview (CI) is a well-established protocol for interviewing witnesses. The current article presents...



The importance of a laboratory science for improving the diagnostic value of confession evidence (with Melissa B. Russano and Fadia M. Narchet), Interrogations and confessions: Current research, practice, and policy recommendations (2010)


The need for a positive psychological approach and collaborative effort for improving practice in the interrogation room (with Maria Hartwig and Melissa B. Russano), Law & Human Behavior (2010)

The White Paper suggests important reforms that will reduce the likelihood of false confessions resulting...



Can intuition improve deception detection performance? (with Justin S. Albrechtsen and Kyle J. Susa), Journal of Experimental Social Psychology (2009)

Two studies examined the role of processing style (intuitive vs. deliberative processing) in a deception...



False confessions (with Allyson J. Horgan and Justin S. Albrechtsen), Applied criminal psychology: A guide to forensic behavioral sciences (2009)


Techniques and controversies in the interrogation of suspects: The artful practice versus the scientific study (with Allison D. Redlich), Psychological science in the courtroom: Controversies and consensus. Guilford Press (2009)


Interrogation and torture (with Justin S. Albrechtsen), 2007 Yearbook of Science & Technology (2007)
Police interviewing and interrogation: A self-report survey of police practices and beliefs (with Saul M. Kassin, Richard A. Leo, Kimberly D. Richman, Lori H. Colwell, Amy-May Leach, and Dana La Fon), Law & Human Behavior (2007)

By questionnaire, 631 police investigators reported on their interrogation beliefs and practices—the first such survey...

“I’d know a false confession if I saw one”: A comparative study of college students and police investigators (with Saul M. Kassin and Rebecca J. Norwick), Law & Human Behavior (2005)

College students and police investigators watched or listened to ten prison inmates confessing to crimes....

Investigating true and false confessions within a novel experimental paradigm (with Melissa B. Russano, Fadia M. Narchet, and Saul M. Kassin), Psychological Science (2005)

The primary goal of the current study was to develop a novel experimental paradigm with...



You’re guilty, so just confess!: Cognitive and behavioral confirmation biases in the interrogation room (with Saul M. Kassin), In D. Lassiter’s (Ed.), Interrogations, confessions, and entrapment. (pp. 85-106). Kluwer Academic / Plenum Press (2004)
The psychology of interrogations and false confessions: Research and recommendations (with Melissa B. Russano), Canadian Journal of Police & Security Services (2003)

Instances of wrongful conviction in North America and Great Britain have uncovered numerous cases in...

He’s guilty!: Investigator bias in judgments of truth and deception (with Saul M. Kassin), Law & Human Behavior (2002)

Detecting deception is an inherently difficult task, but one that plays a critical role for...


Juror Decision-Making


The effects of accomplice witnesses and jailhouse informants on jury decision making (with Jeffrey S. Neuschatz, Deah S. Lawson, Jessica K. Swanner, and Joseph S. Neuschatz), Law & Human Behavior (2008)

The present study presents one of the first investigations of the effects of accomplice witnesses...

Racial bias in juror decision-making: A meta-analytic review of defendant treatment (with Tara L. Mitchell, Ryann M. Haw, and Jeffrey E. Pfeifer), Law & Human Behavior (2005)

Common wisdom seems to suggest that racial bias, defined as disparate treatment of minority defendants,...

Jury nullification: The influence of judicial instruction on the relationship between attitudes and juridic decision-making (with John C. Brigham and Jeffrey E. Pfeifer), Basic & Applied Social Psychology (2003)

Prior research on jury nullification has suggested that individuals tend to operate on their “sentiments”...