Parent behavior and child distress during urethral catheterization
ISSUES AND PURPOSE: Researchers need a clear understanding of the natural behaviors parents use to help their children cope. This study describes the relationships between naturally occurring parent behaviors and child distress behaviors during urethral catheterization. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this descriptive study, researchers videotaped the behaviors of parent-child interactions during urethral catheterization. RESULTS: Parents used distraction to maintain calm behavior during the first part of the procedure and used more reassurance when the children started to become distressed. Seven of the nine children displayed calm behavior at least half the time following distraction. Parental reassurance did not decrease distress behavior in most children. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Early implementation of developmentally appropriate nursing interventions to decrease child distress is imperative. Parents may need specific instruction and practice to continue the use of distraction throughout procedures, even when the child is upset.
Charmaine Kleiber and Ann Marie McCarthy. "Parent behavior and child distress during urethral catheterization" Journal of the Society of Pediatric Nurses 4.3 (1999): 95-104.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/charmaine_kleiber/59