This chapter examines the participation of women in mathematics, focusing on academe. It begins with an overview of the international situation for graduate education in mathematics, illustrating national differences in proportions of female mathematics doctorates. These differences may be associated with national differences in gender segregation in all fields of study. Data collected within the US illustrate two other statistical phenomena: differences in proportions of women earning degrees and in academic departments, and stratification in professional awards and academic employment. These three phenomena are not unique to the US or to mathematics but the chapter draws many of its illustrations from the United States for several reasons. The US is among the major producers of PhDs in mathematics, its universities attract many of the world’s top mathematicians, and it collects extensive statistical information on women in mathematics and other scientific fields. Because the representation of women in mathematics and other fields varies by nation, the chapter concludes by discussing conditions associated with such variations.