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Cultural Change and Marketing

Steve Jenner, California State University - Dominguez Hills
Brent MacNab, University of Sydney
Donnel A. Briley, University of Sydney
Richard Brislin, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Reg Worthley, University of Hawaii at Manoa


The results of this study suggest that marketing strategies need to be adjusted to changing cultures. Culture affects marketing decisions regarding product, price, promotion and place (the 4 Ps). Many marketing studies have been reported based on Hofstede's seminal work on national culture (1980). Marketing managers need to be cautious about assuming the validity of the Anglo cluster equating the cultures of the United States (U.S.) and Canada. We should recognize that national cultures are changing in the U.S., Canada and Mexico, as well as most other countries in the world. Our findings for a very recent sample of people attending executive and MBA programs would seem to apply to the upwardly-mobile business class. Contrary to the ubiquitous Hofstede data found in textbooks, we found no significant differences in Power Distance between the U.S., Mexico and Canada. Our findings regarding differences in Uncertainty Avoidance show that Mexico did not have a significantly higher mean than the U.S., but that the U.S. had a higher mean than Canada. The U.S. and Canada did not differ significantly on Individualism/Collectivism. Our results suggest that caution should be taken in automatically assuming cultural parity between the U.S. and Canada and that established cultural positions between the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) member nations may be changing.

Suggested Citation

Steve Jenner, Brent MacNab, Donnel A. Briley, Richard Brislin, and Reg Worthley. "Cultural Change and Marketing" Journal of Global Marketing 21.2 (2008): 161-172.
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