The Effects of Pruning Type on Wind Loading of Acer Rubrum
The wind load, bending moment, height, and weight were determined for 81 red maples (Acer rubrum) before and after pruning. Trees were thinned, reduced, lion tailed, or stripped of foliage. All three pruning treatments reduced wind load significantly compared to unpruned trees at all tested velocities (11, 16, and 20 m/sec [25, 35, and 45 mph]). Reduction in wind load increased with increasing velocity. Differences in wind-load reduction between reduction pruning and thinning were not significant at any velocity. The reduction in wind load was linearly related to the amount of weight removed by pruning treatments. Compared to the same trees prior to pruning, the center of pressure height was significantly lowered on thinned and reduced trees, while the center of pressure height did not change on lion-tailed trees.
E Thomas Smiley and Brian C.P. Kane. "The Effects of Pruning Type on Wind Loading of Acer Rubrum" Arboriculture & Urban Fore 32.1 (2006): 33-40.