On some traffic equilibrium theory paradoxes
We consider the asymmetric equilibrium problem with fixed demands in a transportation network where the travel cost on each link may depend on the flow on this as well as other links of the network and we study how the travellers' cost is affected by changes in the travel demand or addition of new routes. Assuming that the travel cost functions are strongly monotone, we derive formulas which express, under certain conditions, how a change in travel demand associated with a particular origin-destination (O / D) pair will affect the travelers' cost for any O / D pair. We then use these formulas to show that an increase in the travel demand associated with a particular O / D pair (all other remaining fixed) always results in an increase in the travelers' cost on that O / D pair, however, the travelers' cost on other O / D pairs may decrease. We then derive formulas yielding, under certain conditions, the change in travelers' cost on every O / D pair induced by the addition of a new path. These can be used to determine, whether Braess' paradox occurs in the network. We then show that when a new path is added, the travelers' cost associated with the particular O / D pair joined by this path will decrease (hence Braess' paradox does not occur) if a test matrix is positive semidefinite.
Anna Nagurney and Stella Dafermos. "On some traffic equilibrium theory paradoxes" Transportation Research B 18.2 (1984): 101-110.
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