Many debates surround systems for resolving workplace disputes. In the United States, traditional unionized grievance procedures, emerging nonunion dispute resolution systems, and the court-based system for resolving employment law disputes have all been criticized. What is missing from these debates are rich metrics beyond speed and satisfaction for comparing and evaluating dispute resolutions systems. In this paper, we develop efficiency, equity, and voice as these standards. Unionized, nonunion, and employment law procedures are then qualitatively evaluated against these three metrics.
John W Budd and Alexander Colvin. "Improved Metrics for Workplace Dispute Resolution Procedures: Efficiency, Equity, and Voice"
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/alexander_colvin/18/